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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the function of Cellular Respiration?
To make ATP
What are the two types of respiration?
Taking in oxygen and turning it into carbon dioxide and cellular respiration where food nutrients are changed into ATP.
Where does cellular respiration occur (chiefly)
what are the reactants of cellular respiration?
glucose and oxygen
What are the products of cellular respiration?
water, carbon dioxide, and ATP
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6+O2 ------> H2O+CO2+ATP
what are some life functions that cellular respiration aids?
biosynthesis, nerve impulses, movement, transport, and growth.
An example of structure determines function is the inner membrane of the mitochondria. What is the structure and function of the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
The inner membrane is highly folded, which gives it ample surface area. The electron transport chain occurs there.
what is a calorie?
A calorie is the amount of energy it takes to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius.
What are the stages of cellular respiration (3)? In order
glycolysis, krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
Where does glycolysis occur?
Does glycolysis require oxygen? What is this called?
Glycolysis does not require oxygen, so it is anaerobic.
Define glycolysis.
Glycolysis is the process in which glucose gets split in half, forming two, three carbon pyruvic acids.
What are the products of glycolysis?
2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvic acids
Does the Krebs Cycle require oxygen? What is this called?
The Krebs Cycle does require oxygen so that means that it is aerobic.
WHere does the Krebs Cycle take place>
The Krebs Cycle takes place in the mitochondria.
What does the Krebs cycle do to pyruvic acid?
During the Krebs Cycle, pyruvic acid forms citric acid first, then carbon dioxide comes off, nadh comes off, and the new electron carrier, fadh2 comes off.
what are the products of the krebs cycle?
6 NADH, 2 ATP, 4CO2, and 2 FADH2
What is known as the central factor in metabolism?and why
the krebs cycle... or citric acid cycle is known as the central factor in metabolism. It is known as the central factor of metabolism because it breaks down lipids, carbs and proteins into ATP.
Where does the Electron Transport Chain take place>
the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
What are the two electron carriers in the electron transport chain?
nadh and fadh2
how many atp molecules does the electron transport chain produce alone?
34 atp
How many atp molecules are made from cellular respiration?
38. two from both glycolysis and the krebs cycle and 34 from etc.
what process does fermentation always follow?
fermentation always follows glycolysis.
what is the definition of fermentation?
Fermentation is the process in which nutrients are turned into atp in the presence of oxygen.
what are the two types of fermentation?
lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation
what is the function of fermentation?
the function of fermentation is to produce nad+ it is anaerobic.
what happens to the nad+ in fermentation after it is made?
the nad+ molecules go back to glycolysis after they are made during fermentation.
what organisms use alcoholic fermentation?
bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms.
what is the equation for alcoholic fermentation?
Pyruvic Acid +NADH---> alcohol+ CO2 + NAD+
What is the equation for lactic acid fermentation?
pyruvic acid+ NADH ----->
lactic acid + CO2 + NAD+
compare lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation
Both produce Pyruvic acid and NADH to produce NAD+ and alcoholic fermentation releases co2 and lactic acid does not.
how many atp molecules can a cell produce from a single glucose molecule during cellular respiration?
what is the function of NAD+ in glycolysis?
In glycolysis, Nad+ accepts a pair of high-energy electrons and transports them to the etc.
What is fermentation, in a more scientific stance?
The process which converts NADH to NAD+ by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid.
when you are running and need to sustain a rapid pace, what is the order of processes that you will go through in order to get energy? There are three places...
1- Stored ATP
2- Cellular Respiration
3- Lactic Acid Fermentation
How does fermentation allow glycolysis to continue?
it makes nad+
what does lactic acid fermentation convert into lactic acid?
nadh and pyruvic acid.
when does the krebs cycle begin?
krebs cycle begins when pyruvic acid enters the mitochondrion.
why is the krebs cycle aka the citric acid cycle?
because citric acid is the first compound that is produced in the krebs cycle.
what happens to pyruvic acid during the krebs cycle?
during the krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into co2 in a series of energy-producing steps.
in the presence of oxygen how is the pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis used?
it goes to the krebs cycle.
what happens to the carbon dioxide produced in breaking down pyruvic acid?
it goes to the air, or in other words, it's exhaled.
during the energy extraction part of the krebs cycle, how many molecules of co2 are released?
what is the energy tally from one molecule of pyruvic acid during the krebs cycle?
3nadh, 1 fadh2, 1 atp!!!!
at the end of glycolysis, how much of the chemical energy in glucose is still unused?
about ninety percent
when electrons join nad+ and fad during the KREBS cycle, what do they form?
why is the four carbon compound generated in the breakdown of citric acid the only permanent compound in the krebs cycle?
because citric acid is regenerated at the end of every cycle.
what is the electron transport chain?
Series of proteins in the inner membrane of the mitochondria
what does the electron transport chain use the high-energy electrons from the krebs cycle for?
they convert adp into atp by pumping protons into the intermembrane space, creating potential energy... ADP plus phosphate equals atp.
where does the electron transport chain get the high energy electrons that are passed down the chain?
from NADH and FADH2.which come from the krebs cycle
what is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain>?
what is the energy of the high energy electrons used for every time two high energy electrons move down the electron transport chain?
transportation of hydrogen ions across the membrane.
what causes the h+ ions in the intermembrane space to move through the channels in the membrane and out into the matrix?
hydrogen ions are attracted to negative charges found in the matrix, so they travel through the atp synthase to get there.
high energy electrons from nadh and fadh2 are passed into and along the what???
electron transport chain
the energy from the electrons moving down the chain is used to move hydrogen ions across the what?
inner membrane
hydrogen ions build up in the ___________ space, making it ___________ charged and making the matrix negatively charged.
intermembrance, and positively
hydrogen ions move through channels of _____________ in the inner membrane.
atp synthase.
the atp synthase uses the energy from the moving ions to combine adp and phosphate, forming high-energy ________?
why is more atp generated from glucose in the presence of oxygen?
glucose can go through aerobic, which produces 38 instead of fermentation which produces much fewer, closer to 4 atp.
how are photosynthesis and cerlular respiration opposite in terms of co2?
ps takes co2 in and cellular resp puts it back out.
how are photosynthesis and cellular resp opposite in terms of oxygen?
ps releases o2 and cr takes it in.