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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where does plant cell division take place?
Along the cell plate.
What shape is the DNA in a bacteria and how many strands are there?
One strand in a ring shape
What is binary fission?
Division of prokaryotic cells into two separate clone cells.
What is cancer?
Cancer is a group of cells that is damaged so that the cells undergo uncontrollable mitosis and becomes undifferentiated.
What type of cell is naturally undifferentiated?
What is meiosis?
Reduction division--number of chromosomes in a cell is cut in half.
What are haploid cells? Examples:
cell has half the number of chromosomes in a normal cell. Gametes: sperm and egg are haploid
what is a zygote?
gametes combined=2n. Creates diploid cell.
what is the diploid number in humans?
46--23 pairs of chromosomes
what is a gene?
section of DNA that codes for a protein
homologous Chromosomes (pairs)
pair of DNA strands
During what stage of meiosis are there homologous pairs?
During meiosis 1
what is the purpose of mitosis?
Production of cells for growth and repair
what is the purpose of meiosis?
Productions of gametes
How many cells are created by mitosis?
2 daughter cells
How many cells are created by meiosis?
4 daughter cells, all haploid
what is genetic variability?
one gamete has half the chromosomes, the other gamete has the other half--the combination of the two creates a genetically different organism from original gametes
crossing over
homologous pairs sometimes cross over one another during meiosis 1 and reattach incorrectly
True or false? Homologous pairs line up independent of one another.
True. Called Independent Assortment
Calculate the probability of genetic variablity: 2 to the 3rd
8 possibilities--2 is the pair and the 3 is the number of pairs-- 2*2*2=8
How much are you related to your brothers and sisters? To your parents?
50% for both
How much are you related to your cousins? To your aunts and uncles?
Who discovered Mendelian Genetics?
Mendel using pea plants
What are Mendelian Genetics?
Rules discovered that are associated with genetic variablity.
What is an allele?
gene variations--there are 2 alleles for each gene
What is a phenotype
expression of the alleles
What is a genotype?
what alleles are present
What is a monohybrid cross?
deals with the allele combinations of one particular gene
How would you find a missing allele in a monohybrid cross??
Use a test cross--homozygous recessive
What is a dihybrid cross?
deals with the allele combinations of two genes at the same time
When does the phenotypic ratio equal the genotypic ratio?
When there is incomplete dominance.
What is codominance?
When 2 alleles are dominant to one recessive such as in blood types.
What is polygenic inheritance?
Traits that are controlled by more than one gene
what are the variations of polygenic inheritance called?
What are genes affected by?
Environment effects such as temperature and UV radiation
What is a recessive disorder?
A disorder which only occurs when both genes for he disorder are recessive.
What is an example of a recessive disorder?
cystic fibrosis--autosomal recessive disorder (autosomal means cells that are not gametes)
What is a autosomal dominate disorder and how many of the offspring would have the disorder if two people who had it were to mate?
disorder which presents itself on the dominant gene--75% of offspring will have the disorder. 25% will be completely normal
What are the sex chromosomes typically represented by?
X and Y
True or false? The Y chromosome is missing DNA so no allele for sex-linked traits can be attached to it.
True. This is why it is said the chromosome is missing DNA. Missing the place where the sex-linked trait allele would be placed.
What is an example of a sex-linked trait?
Color blindness and hemophilia
What is a nondisjunction?
mistake in meiosis where chromatids went to only one side instead of to both sides.
What is monosomy?
normal sperm fertilizes empty egg (1 strand DNA)
what is trisomy?
normal sperm fertilizes disjunction (3 strands DNA)
How many defective gametes are created if disjunction occurs during meiosis 1? Meiosis 2?
Meiosis 1= 2 defective gametes
Meiosis 2= 4 defective gametes
what is a deletion?
a piece of the DNA sequence is destroyed
What is a translocation?
Two different chromosomes swap DNA
What is a duplication?
a second copy of the same DNA sequence is made within the DNA chain
What is an inversion?
Genes within a DNA sequence are flip-flopped.
What causes DNA mutations?
Too much alcohol, hazardous chemicals, high UV levels, radiation exposure