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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
synthesis of cAMP by
adenylate cyclase
-rapidly catalyzes cAMP synthesis from ATP
cAMP is rapidly hydrolyzed back to AMP by
cAMP phophodiesterase
cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) mediates ____
most of the effects of cAMP
PKA protein kinase is made of
4 different subunits
with 2 regulatory subunits
type 1 is in the
type II is
bound via special anchoring proteins to PM, NM, mitochondrial OM, and MT
in all cases all types move to ____
nucleus upon activation. once there, catalytic subunits phosphorylate gene regulatory proteins
gene transcription is activated by a
rise in cyclic AMP concentration
beta-adgeneric receptor is a ___
g-signal protein receptor responsible for changes in response to stress
3 types of inositol phospholipids
PI 4-phosphate
PI 4,5 biphosphate
some G-proteins activate the IP signaling pathway
c-beta activation
the generation of second messengers
steps 1-3
generation of PI
generation of PIP
generation of PIP2
PIP2 is present in ____ amounts and ____ is crucial
small amounts but breakdown is crucial
The hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 by
phopholipase c-beta
in step 2 PIP2 goes to
DAG which activates protein kinase
IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) which releases calcium from the ER
termination of initial ca2+ response?
how many branches are there of the inositol phospholipid pathway
what are they?
ca2+ functions as a ___
ubiquitous intracellular messenger
generation of IP3 is coupled to ____
calcium release from ER
the 3 steps of generation of IP3 are 1.
IP3 rapidly diffuses from the PM thru the cytosol binds to IP3-gated calcium release channels present in the ER
step 1 proceeds to step 2 to generate
an autocatalytic, self-propagating stimulation of calcium release
the response is ____
quelled upon the dephosphorylation of IP3 by a specific phosphatase and the reduction of cytosolic calcium by calcium-dependent pumps in the ER and PM
there are 3 types of ca2+ channels which mediate this ca2+ channels signaling
voltage-gated (membrane depolarizing)
IP3-gated, g-protein mediated
ryanodine-gated (react to changes in PM potential and release ca2+ from the SR, thereby stimulating the contraction of muscle cells)
what are the main way eukaryotic cells maintain a verry low concentration of free ca2+ tightly
actively pumped out of cytosol
pumped into ER or mitochondria
molecules in cell bind free ca2+
a ubiquitous regulator of ca2+ dependent processes (multipurpose intracellular Ca2+ receptor)
calmodulin is a small
(17kD) soluble protein, present in all eukaryotic cells
-1% of the cellular protein
-highly conserved from yeast to humans
-mediates a variety of Ca2+ regulated processes
calmodulin contains 4 high ___
affinity ca2+ binding sites
undergoes conformational change when Ca2+ binds
-binds various target enzymes to allosterically activate
CaM-kinases mediate many of
the actions of ca2+ in animal cells
binding of the 4 sites in animal cells
binds inhibitory region which changes shape, become activated, able to take phosphate available from ATP and phosphorylate itself (helps molecule remember its conformation)
rhodopsin is a
-has to do with vision and also smell
regulate c-n-g Ion Channels
light to rhodopsin -->
g-transducin --> activates cGMP Phosphodiesterase --> decrease in cGMP
Light to rhodopsin is an
ion channel regulated by cNT
-smell and vision depend on G-protein linked receptors that regulate cyclic-nucleotide-gated Ion Channels
10,000 G increase cAMP
fastest g-protein mediated response, light
decrease in cGMP
what phosphorylates Rhodopsin?
arrestin sequesters
physically blocks from interacting with it
-keeps it in off position (something with phosphorylation)
-acts as an adaptor, helps make clathrin coated pit
g-protein linked receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins in receptor
GRK phosphorylates
activated receptor at multiple sites
arrestin binds to
phosphorylated receptor