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208 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Communication range of bluetooth

.05 miles

Wi-fi communication range

up to 300m (0.18 mile)

WiMax communication range

up to 30 miles (50 km)

What is WiMax

an alternative to cable and DSL communication

What is satellite broadband

broadband which uses a directional satellite dish that is aligned with a specific geostationary Earth orbit satellite.

Agency that regulates radio frequency spectrum

International Telecommunication Union-radiocommuniction sector

what is a band

a range of frequencies

frequency of wlan networks

2.4 GHz

3 ranges that wlans, bluetooth, cellular and satellite communication occurs




UHF is frequency for (3)



Cellular broadcast

SHF is frequency for


Microwave communication

Satellite communication

EHF is frequency for

60 GHz WiGig WLAN

Radar landing systems

IEEE standard number for WLAN


802.11 frequency band and transmit rate

2.4 GHz

up to 2 Mb/s

802.11a frequency band and transmit rate

5 GHz

up to 54 Mb/s

Drawback to the 802.11a standard

Since it transmits at 5 GHz, the higher frequency has a smaller coverage area and is less effective

802.11b frequency band and transmit rate

2.4 GHz

11 Mb/s

802.11g frequency band and transmit rate

2.4 GHz

54 Mb/s

802.11n frequency band and transmit rate

dual band device, both 2.4 and 5 GHz

range from 150 Mb

Distance range for 802.11n

.5 mile

mimo stands for

multiple input multiple output

802.11ad aka


802.11ad frequency (3) and transmission rate

2.4GHz, 5 GHz, 60 GHz

up to 7 Gb/s

Drawbacks to 802.11ad

60 GHz needs line of sight, when roaming device switches to lower 2.4 and 5 GHz bands

3 organizations influencing WLAN standards



WI-FI Alliance

What does the ITU-R do

Regulates the allocation of the RF spectrum and satellite orbits

What does the IEEE do

specifies how RF is modulated to carry information

maintains standards for local and metro networks

What does the Wi-Fi alliance do

promotes growth and acceptance of WLANs. Objective is to improve interoperability of products based on 802.11 by certifying vendors who conform to this standard

What is wifi protected setup

simplifies device connections

what is wifi direct

shares media between devices

what is wifi passpoint

simplify securely connecting to wifi hotspot networks

what is wifi miracast

display video between devices

4 characteristics of RF vs cable

No boundary limits

unprotected from outside signals

same challenges as other wave based tech

rf bands regulated differently in different countries

why is having no boundaries a problem for rf

the data frames are available for anyone to grab them.

why is having no protection from outside signals a problem for rf

other devices using the same or similar rf can interfere with the WLAN signal

Transmission issues with RF

as the signal travels further, it degrades and is lost

What does a wireless NIC incorporate

radio transmitter/reciever

required software driver for operation

home wireless router serves as (3)

access point



ssid stands for

service set identifier

What are autonomous APs

standalone devices configured using cli or gui.

where are autonomous APs used

in situations where only a couple of APs are required in the network.

What are controller based APs

Server-dependent devices that require no initial configuration.

When are controller-based APs used

where there are many APs required in a network

Describe Cisco WAP4410N (3)

Intro-level small business AP

Configured using GUI

Powered with AC or PoE

Desicribe Cisco WAP121/WAP321 (4)

Mid level small business AP

configured/managed using gui/cli

supports clustering with single point setup

powered with AC or PoE

Describe Cisco AP541N (4)

Mid-level small business AP

Configured with gui

Supports controller-less clustering technology

Powered using AC or PoE

4 conditions to meet for a cluster to form between 2 APs

clustering mode enabled on both

all have same cluster name

connected on same network segment

use same radio mode (ie 802.11n)

What does the Meraki Cloud Managed Architecture do

APs are managed centrally from a controller in the cloud

How does the Meraki Cloud man arch work

controller pushes management settings, security settings, wireless network and SSID settings to the various Meraki APs

3 types of wifi antennas




benefit of using a directional wifi antenna

provides stronger signal strength in one direction

what are yagi antenna

directional antenna that can be used for long distance wifi networking

max number of antenna that can be used per device to increase throughput


enables a client station to send and receive rf signals

802.11 nic

connects wireless clients to the wired lan

access point

incorporates functions of a wireless access point, ethernet switch and router

wireless router

2 network topologies of wireless lans

ad hoc mode

infrastructure mode

ad hoc mode is

when 2 devices connect wirelessly withough the aid of an infrastructure device such as a router or ap

examples of ad hoc wireless mode


wifi direct

infrastructure mode is

when wireless clients interconnect via a wireless router or ap

2 infrastructure mode building blocks

basic service set

extended service set

bss stands for

basic service set

a bss consists of

a single ap interconnecting all associated wireless clients

bsa stands for

basic service area

difference between bss and bsa


bsa=actual coverage area

bssid stands for

basic service set identifier

what is used for the bssid

layer 2 mac address of the ap

ess stands for

extended service set

what is an ess

a union of 2 or more bss interconnected by a wired ds

benefits of an ess

clients in one bsa can communicate with clients in another bsa. can move from bsa to bsa if in the same ess and still connect

describe frame control in 802.11 frame

identifies type of wireless frame and contains subfields for protocol version, frame type, address type, power management and security settings

describe duration in 802.11 frame

used to indicate remaining duration needed to receive the next frame transmission

describe address1 in 802.11 frame

contains the mac address of the receiving wireless device or ap

describe address2 in 802.11 frame

contains the mac address of the transmitting wireless device or ap

describe address 3 in 802.11 frame

cometimes contains the mac address of the destination such as the router interface to which the ap is attached

describe sequence control in 802.11 frame

contains sequence number and fragment number subfields

what is the sequence number in 802.11 fields

indicates the sequence of each frame

what is the fragment number in 802.11 fields

# of each frame sent of a fragmented frame

describe address 4 in 802.11 frame

usually missing because it is used only in ad hoc mode

describe payload in 802.11 frame

contains data for transmission

describe fcs in 802.11 frame

frame check sequence, used for layer 2 error control

describe protocol version in frame control field of 802.11 frame

provides current version of 802.11 protocol used

describe frame type/subtype in frame control field of 802.11 frame

determines function of the frame, control, data or management

describe ToDS/FromDS in frame control field of 802.11 frame

indicates whether frame is going to or exiting from the DS, only used in data frames of wireless clients associated with ap

describe more fragments in frame control field of 802.11 frame

indicates whether more fragments of the frame, either data or management type are to follow

describe retry in frame control field of 802.11 frame

indicates whether or not the frame or is being transmitted

describe power management in frame control field of 802.11 frame

indicates whether the sending device is in active mode or power save mode

describe more data in frame control field of 802.11 frame

indicates to a device in power-save mode that the ap has more frames to send

describe security in frame control field of 802.11 frame

indicates whether encryption and authentiation are used in the frame

describe reserved in frame control field of 802.11 frame

can indicate that all received data frames must be processed in order

3 types of wireless frame




describe management frame

used in the maintenance of communication such as finding, authenticating and associating the ap

describe control frame

used to facilitate in the exchange of data frames between wireless clients

describe data frame

used to carry payload info such as web pages and files

Associate request frame flag


function of associate request frame

enables the ap to allocate resource and synchronize

what does an association request frame carry

device sends info about the wireless connection including supported data rates and ssid of the network to the ap. if request is accepted, connection is established

reassociation request frame flag


when is a reassociation request frame sent

device sends it out when it drops from range of the currently associated ap and finds another ap with a stronger signal

reassociation response frame flag


association response frame flag


function of association response frame

sent from ap to wireless accepting association request

reassociation response function

sent from ap contains the acceptance or rejection to a device reassociation request frameframe

probe request frame flag


probe request frame function

sent from a wireless client when it requires information from another wireless client

probe response frame flag


probe response frame funcion

sent from an ap containing capability information, such as supported data rates, after receiving probe request frame

beacon frame flag


beacon frame function

sent periodically from an ap to announce its presence, hello frame

dissasociation frame flag


disassociation flag function

sent from a device wanting to terminate a connection.

what does the disassociation flag allow the ap to do

relinquish memory allocation and remove the device from the association table

authentication frame flag


authentication frame flag function

sending device to ap containing its identity

deauthentication frame flag


deauthentication frame function

sent from client wanting to terminate from another wireless client

function of control frames in 802.11 (2)

used to manage the info exchange between a wireless client and an ap

help prevent collisions from occurring on the wireless medium

describe request to send frame(2)

provide optional collision reduction for aps with hidden wireless clients

client sends rts in first step of 2-way handshake

rts stands for

request to send

cts stands for

clear to send

function of clear to send frame

provides clearance for the requesting wireless client to send a data frame including a time value

function of the time value in clear to send frame

minimizes the chance that other wireless clients will transmit while the requesting client transmits

function of ack frame in 802.11

sent by the client after receiving an error free frame from ap. if no ack sent by a certain time, ap resends frame

active or power-save mode status of the sending device

power management

identifies the frame as either a management, control or data frame

frame type

indicates whether encryption and/or authentication is being used


specifies which 802.11 protocol is being used

protocol version

indicates to an associated ap client that data is exiting a ds


dcf stands for

distributed coordination function

write out sequence

6 common configurations necessary to associate client with ap

network mode


channel setting

security mode



what does network mode refer to

802.11 wlan standards

what is an ssid

unique identifier that wireless clients use to distinguish between multiple wireless networks in the same vicinity. HOME-A552 for our house wifi

what are channel settings

frequency bands used to transmit wireless data

what is security mode

refers to the security parameter settings such as WEP, WPA or WPA2

what is the highest security setting for the home or small office

WPA2 personal

describe passive mode discovering of ap

ap openly advertises its services by periodically sending broadcast beacon frames. allows clients to choose which network and ap to use

describe active mode discovering of ap

wireless clients must know the name of the ssid. client sends out a wireless probe request on multiple channels which include the ssid.

2 authentication methods for 802.11

open authentication

shared key

describe open authentication

provides wireless connectivity to any wireless device and should only be used in situations where security is of no concern

describe shared key authentication

based on a key that is pre-shared between the client and the ap

what does the association stage do

finalizes settings and establishes the data link between the wireless client and the ap

aid stands for

association identifier

what does the aid do

logical port that the ap maps to keep track of frames destined for the clients.

what is a range

allocation of frequency sections

what does the saturation of a wireless medium do

degrades the quality of the communication

dsss stands for

direct-sequence spread spectrum

what is dsss

a spread-spectrum modulation technique designed to spread a signal over a larger frequency band making it more resistant to interference.

what is a spreading code

crafted noise added to the user signal and known by the receiver to amplify the signal

fhss stands for

frequency-hopping spread spectrum

what does fhss do

hops carrier signals among many frequency channels to prevent congestion and have a more efficient use of the channels

ofdm stands for

orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

what is ofdm

a subset of frequency division multiplexing in which a single channel utilizes multiple sub-channels on adjacent frequencies which are orthogonal to one another.

IEEE 802.11 b/g/n operate in which level of radio spectrum?


2.4 GHz WLANs (4)





5 GHz WLANs (4)





60 GHz WLAN (1)


2.4 GHz combined channel bandwidth is _____ with each channel separated by ______.

22 MHz

5 MHz

non-overlapping channels in the 2.4 GHz range (3)




What can 802.11n do at the channel level to increase throughput

use channel bonding which takes 2 20 Mhz channels and combines them into 1 40 MHz channel. Uses both channels at same time to delivery data

5 things that affect the number of users on a WLAN

geographical layout of the space

# of bodies and devices in that space

data rates users expect

use of non-overlapping channels by multiple AP

transmit power settings

4 things to keep in mind when planning a WLAN deployment

If APs are to use existing wires or if new wires have to be placed

Position APs above obstructions

Position APs vertically near the ceiling in the center of coverage area if possible

Position APs in locations where users are expected to be

What do bsas represent

comverage area provided by a single channel

an access point is configured to allow both 802.11b and 802.11g clients

mixed mode

the fundamental building block of the 802.11 wireless lan architecture

basic service set (bss)

hen a single bss provides insufficient rf coverage, more can be joined together

extended service set

e WLAN network uses these to advertise its presence to wireless clients


rogue aps are

unauthorized aps installed by a well-intentioned user or willingly for malicious purpose.

wireless intruders are

unauthorized users attempting to access network resources.

protecting against rogue APs

use wireless management software

protecting against wireless intruders

deter intruders using authentication

interception of data is

data that can be easily captured

protection against interception of data

use encryption

wireless dos attacks can be the result of (3)

improperly configured devices

Malicious user

Accidental interferance

ways to minimize risk of dos due to improperly configured devices or malicious attack (4)

harden all devices

keep passwords secure

create backups

ensure all configuration changes occur off hours

How do malicious users typically start wireless dos attacks

they manipulate the management frames to consume ap resources and keep channels too busy to service legitimate user traffic.

2 common management frame attacks

spoofed disconnect attack

cts flood

how is a spoofed disconnect attack done

an attacker sends a series of disassociate commands to all wireless clients within a bss.

how is a cts flood attack done

attacker repeatedly floods the bss with clear to send frames to a bogus client.

definition of rogue ap

connected to a corporate network without explicit authorization against policy

connected to capture client data such as mac addresses, capture/disguise data packets or start man in the middle attacks

security disadvantage of personal hot spots

a user with secure network access could enable unauthorized users access to network through unsecured hot spot

how to prevent rogue ap installation

use monitoring software to monitor the radio spectrum for unauthorized aps

what is the evil twin ap attack

attacker introduces a rogue ap and configures it with the same ssid as a legitamate ap.

2 early security features of wlan

ssid cloaking

mac address filtering

what is ssid cloaking

aps and some wireless routers allow the ssid beacon frame to be disabled. clients must manually identify the ssid to connect to the network

what is mac address filtering

admin can manually allow or deny clients wireless access based on their physical mac hardware address

2 best ways to secure a wlan

open system authentication

shared key authentication

what is open system authenticaton

any wireless client should be easily able to connect. should only be used in no security concern situations

what is shared key authentication

provides mechanisms such as WEP, WPA or WPA2 to authenticate and encrypt data between client and ap.

describe WEP

original 802.11 specification , data secured using RC4 encryption method with static key which makes it easy to hack

describe WPA

wifi alliance standard uses much stronger temporal key integrity protocol encryption algorithm

tkip stands for

temporal key integrity protocol

describe WPA2

IEEE 802.11i industry standard for securing wireless networks, uses advanced encryption standard for encryption

aes stands for

advanced encryption standard

WEP authentication method, encryption, message integrity, security

Pre-shared key




WPA authentication method, encryption, message integrity, security

PSK or 802.1x




WPA2 authentication method, encryption, message integrity, security

PSK or 802.1x


how does tkip work

it makes use of wep but encrypts the layer 2 payload using tkip and carries out a message check to make sure that packets are not tampered with.

what does the aes use to encrypt packets

ccmp protocol

ccmp stands for

counter cipher mode with block chaining message authentication code protocol

what does ccmp allow hosts to do

recognize if the encrypted and non-encrypted bits have been tampered with

2 types of authentication supported by WPA and WPA2



how does personal authentication work

users authenticate using a pre-shared key or pre-shared password, no special server is required

how does enterprise authentication work

requires a RADIUS server, users must authenticate using 802.1x standard which uses eap

RADIUS stands for

remote authentication dial in user service

EAP stands for

extensible authentication protocol

what does eap do

provides a secure authentication mechanism and negotiates a secure private key that can be used for wireless encryption session using tkip or aes encryption

default settings to change on a wireless router

internet connection

dhcp settings

ssid name

wlan security

management access