• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


-born in a chicago suburb, Oak Park

-was the 4th of 6 children

-father was civil engineer and contractor

-conservative, protestant christian family

-family moved to farm

-->became interested in science

-had a tendency toward solitude

-interested in english and science



-wisconsin university/ studying agriculture

--> changed major to history

-Union Theological Seminary

-Columbia University/clinical and educational psychology

Was rogers active in church?


which psychologist was Rogers influenced by?

Alfred Adler

what was roger's first book called?

other books?

The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child

-followed by Counseling and Psychotherapy: Newer Concepts in Practice

-Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory

What awards did he receive?

-president of the American Association for Applied Psychology, the American Psychological Association, and of the APA's Division of Clinical and Abnormal Psychology

-->president of newly formed American Academy of Psychotherapists

-received the first Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the APA

-received the first Distinguished Professional Contribution Award from the APA

-named humanist of the year (1964)

-lifetime achievement award by the American Assoc of Counseling and Development

-nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize

Rogers was ranked first as the...

person who most influenced profession practice in counseling, therapy, social work, and psychology

Where does evil originate if it isn't from human nature?

from fear and defensiveness

the driving force in everyone's life...

the actualizing tendency

the actualizing tendency causes a person to become...

-more differentiated (complex)


-socially responsible

evaluation of one's experiences

organismic valuing process

T/F: Rogers was a phenomenologist


How are Rogers and Kelly the same?

both stressed the individual's singular, subjective interpretation of experience, and that is why they both are labeled phenomenologist

how are Rogers and Kelly different?

Rogers belief in the actualizing tendency


what is going on within the organism's environment at any given moment that is potentially available to awareness

the development of the self

-a major manifestation of the actualizing tendency

-->inclines the organism toward greater differentiation and complexity

-experiences viewed as enhancing one's self-concept= positively valued

-experiences viewed as detrimental to the self-concept= negatively valued

what was universal but not necessarily innate?

need for positive regard

positive regard

-receiving warmth, love sympathy, care, respect, and acceptance

-from relevant people in one's life

-feeling of being prized by those people who are important to us

-given from parents, for example, when the child behaves as the parent wishes

conditions of worth

specify the circumstances under which children will receive positive regard

-once recognized, may become a conscience, or superego, guiding the children's behavior even when the parents are not present

what comes from the need of positive regard?

need for self regard

children develop the need to view themselves positively

need for self regard

need for self regard

-children develop the need to view themselves positively

-children want others to feel good about them and then they want to feel good about themselves

the only way NOT to interfere with children's actualizing tendencies is to give them...?

unconditional positive regard

unconditional positive regard

-disciplining a child, for example, but letting them know that they will always be loved


-exists when people no longer use their organismic calling process as a means of determining if their experiences are in accordance with their actualizing tendency

introjected values

-conditions of worth have replaced their organismic calling process as the dream of reference for evaluating their experiences

-results in alienation between the self and experiences

-->under these circumstances, what may be truly satisfying to the person may be denied awareness because it is not in accordance with the person's introjected conditions of worth

the cause of all human adjustment problems results from


**eliminating incongruence will solve these problems

when incongruency exists between self and experience the person is...

maladjusted and is vulnerable to anxiety and threat and therefore is defensive

anxiety results when...

people subceive an experience as being incompatible with their self- structure and its introjected conditions of worth

-experience when an even is encountered that threatens the existing self structure


the detection of an experience before it enters full awareness

-a threatening event can be denied or distorted before it causes anxiety

the process of defense

consists of editing experiences using the mechanisms of denial and distortion

-keeps them in accordance with the self structure

-is NOT denied symbolization because it is "naughty" or "sinful"

-it is denied symbolization because it is contrary to the self structure

how did rogers first refer to his approach to therapy?

as nondirective therapy

-emphasized clients' ability to solve their own problems if they were given the proper atmosphere for doing to

How did roger refer to his approach to therapy (second time)

labeled his technique, client-centered therapy

-a joint venture deeply involving both client and therapist

therapist job in the non directive therapy approach was:

providing an atmosphere in which clients could gradually comprehend the nature of their problems

therapist job in the client centered therapy approach was:

to attempt actively to understand the client's phenomenological field or internal frame of reference

what was the stage after internal frame of reference?

experiential stage

what is experiential stage?

the therapist became as free as the client

-deep feelings from client and the therapist were equally important

-process was regarded as a struggle to put these feelings into words

what was the last stage in Rogers' thinking?

person centered stage

what is the person centered stage?

-theory extended to many areas beyond the therapeutic process

-emphasis on the total person instead of looking at an individual in terms of some specific role

list the six conditions that roger thought were necessary for effective therapy.

1. the client and the therapist must be in psychological contact

2.the client must be in the state of incongruence,

-vulnerable or anxious

3. therapist must be in a state of congruency in relation to client

4. therapist must give the client unconditional positive regard

5. therapist must seek an empathic understanding of the client's internal frame of reference

6. client must perceive the fact that the therapist is giving him or her unconditional positive regard

-and attempting to understand empathetically their internal frame of reference

what changes would occur if the 6 conditions were met?

1.clients express feelings with increased freedom

2.clients become accurate in description of their experiences and events around them

3. clients begin to detect incongruity between their concept of self and certain experiences

4. clients feel threatened as incongruity is experienced, but the unconditional positive regard of the therapist allows them to go on experiencing incongruency without necessity of distorting or denying them

5.clients are able to symbolize accurately and be aware of feelings which in the past had been denied or distorted

6.clients concepts of self become reorganized and thus are able to include those experiences which had prev. been denied awareness

7. clients concepts of self become increasingly congruent with experience

-feels less threatened by experiences and becomes less defensive

8.clients are able to accept therapists unconditional positive regard

9. clients feel unconditional positive self regard

10.therapy is successful if clients experiences are evaluated in terms of their organismic valuing process and not in terms of worth

therapy is designed to...

eliminate incongruity between experience and the self

what stage of life is the fully functioning person like?


for growth to occur in a relationship, unconditional positive regard must be present. What are the elects to such conditions?

-genuineness, realness, congruence

-acceptance, or caring, or prizing

-empathic understanding.... sensitive, a active listening

what does empathy mean, according to Rogers

temporarily living in the other's life, moving about in it delicately without making judgments


if one is living in accordance with their organismic valuing process, what characteristics do they possess?

1. open to experience-no defenseness

2. self structures are congruent with experiences

3. will evaluate experiences instead of conditions of worth

4. experience unconditional self regard

5. meet each new experience with honest spontaneity instead of preconception what what experiences should mean

-->existential living

6. lives in harmony with others because of rewarding nature of reciprocal unconditional positive regard

7. experience subjective freedom

8. experience creativity

q-sort technique

used to measure the growth of a client

-real self

-ideal self

real self

when a client may describe self accurately

ideal self

the person can describe those attributes that they would like to possess but currently do not

procedure of administering q-sort technique

1. client is given 100 cards containing statements about how they feel

2.client self sorts; places cards in 9 piles arranged to reflect statements that are most like the client; arranged from most alike to least alike the client

3. client sorts cards again; ideal sort

self sort

choosing the cards and statements that the client sees them most similar to

ideal self

choosing the cards and statements that the client wishes to be most like

rogers was the first therapist to...

-measure the effectiveness of therapy

-film his session

T/F: Rogers believed in the innate goodness of a person


What was the biggest difference between Skinner and Rogers?

cultural engineering-skinner believed behavioral principles should be used in designing a culture more efficiently satisfied human needs

-Rogers proposed a model of humans that emphasizes their actualizing tendency and creative powers

what was important for learning?

1. knowing we have natural potential to learn

2.relevance of subject

3. change in self structure

4. external threats are minimal

5. experience is perceived in great detail

6. through doing/actions/moving

7. student participates responsibly

8.self initiated learning is long lasting learning

9. independence and creativity is primary, evaluation of others is secondary

10. learning to learn is most important

the term "teacher"


-suggests a person who dispenses info to students

it should, however...

-emphasize the person is there to create an atmosphere conducive to learning

facilitator of education

acts on the principles of learning, and treats each student as unique person with feelings of their own, rather than an object to be taught something

why is marriage in trouble according to rogers?

-because marriages are too based on outdated, simplistic, fallacious, or selfish assumptions

ex//couples believe that being in love or being committed to each other is enough to sustain the marriage

how does marriage work?

must be egalitarian, enriching, and satisfying for both partners

-both partners continue to grow

-mutually beneficial for each

satellite relationships

close secondary relationship outside the marriage which may or may not involve sexual intercourse, but which is valued for itself

what is a "new person"?

-one who has many of the characteristics of a fully functioning person

-humanistically oriented

-NOT technologically oriented

what are the characteristics of a person of tomorrow?

1. opens of inner and outer experiences

2. desire for authenticity

3. skepticism towards the kid of sciences and technology that has its goal as controlling nature and/or people

4. desire for wholeness

5. wish for shared purpose in life or intimacy

6. tendency to embrace change and risk taking with enthusiasm

7. gentle, subtle, nonmoralistic, nonjudgmental caring

8. feeling of closeness to and caring for nature

9. antipathy for highly structured, inflexible, bureaucratic institutions

10. tendency to follow authority of own organismic valuing process

11. indifference of material comforts and rewards

12. desire to seek meaning in life that is greater than individual

-->yearning for spiritual

T/F: Rogers theory was supported by empirical research


Why was rogers theory criticized?

for portraying an overly simplistic and optimistic view of humans

-not giving proper credit to other theories on which his is based

-and ignoring important aspects of personality

why was rogers theory praised?

for promoting a positive view of humans, as opposed to the negative views of behaviorism and psychoanalysis

innate tendency in all humans to maintain and enhance themselves

actualizing tendency

results when a person perceives or subceives an experience as being incompatible with his or her self structure and its introjects conditions of worth


characterizes the events in one's experience that have been symbolized and therefore have entered consciousness


description of rogers's second approach to therapy in which the therapist makes an active effort to understand the client's subjective reality

client centered therapy

conditions under which an incongruent person will experience positive regard

conditions of worth

effort to change a threatening experience through distortion or denial


refusal to allow threatening experiences to enter awareness


modification of a threatening experience so it is no longer threatening


all the events of which a person could be aware at any given moment


third stage in the evolution of roger's approach to therapy in which the feelings of the therapist become as important as the feelings of the client

experiential stage

term that rogers thought was better than teacher because it suggests someone is helpful and uncritical and who will provide the freedom that is necessary for learning to take place

facilitator of education

person whose locus of evaluation is his or her own organismic valuing process rather than internalized conditions of worth

fully functioning person

client's description of how he or she would like to be

ideal self

statements chosen by a client as best describing the person he or she would most like to be

-part of the q sorting technique

ideal sort

exists when a person is no longer using the organismic valuing process as a means of evaluation experiences. the person, under theses conditions, is no longer acting honestly toward his or her self experiences


subjective reality, or phenomenological field, according to which a person lives his or her life

internal frame of reference

conditions of worth that are internalized and become basis for one's self regard

introjected values

need to receive warmth, sympathy, care, respect, and acceptance form the relevant people in one's life

need for positive regard

need a person develops to feel positively about himself

need for self regard

description of rogers first approach to therapy in which the emphasis was on the clients ability to solve his or her problems

nondirective therapy

one of the chief characteristics of fully functioning person

openness to experience

frame of reference that allows an individual to know if his experiences are in accordance with his or her actualizing tendency. those experiences that maintain or enhance the person are in accordance with this process, others are not

organismic valuing process

final stage in rogers thinking in which the emphasis was on understanding the total person, not on understanding the person merely as a client

person centered stage

that portion of experience of which an individual is aware. it is this reality, thatcher than physical reality, that directs a person's behavior

phenomenological field

persons private, subjective perception or interpretation of objective reality

phenomenological reality

to rogers, an experience designed to help an incongruent person become congruent


method rogers used to determine how a clients self image changed as a function of therapy

q sort technique

clients description of how he or she currently views him or herself

real self

debate held in 1955 btw rogers and skinner over how best to use the principles discovered by behavioral sciences

rogers skinner debate

close relationship with individuals other than ones spouse

satellite relationships

that portion of the phenomenological field that becomes differentiated because of experiences involving terms such as I, me, and mine


statements chosen by a client as best describing the person as he or she actually is at the moment

-part of q sort technique

self sort

detection of an experience before it enters full awareness


process by which an event enters an individuals awareness


term that rogers believed was unfortunate because it connotes an authoritarian figure who dispenses info to passive students


anything that is thought to be incompatible with ones self structs


experience of positive regard without conditions of with. in other words, positive regard is not contingent on certain acts or thoughts

unconditional postive regard