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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The cardiovascular system is comprised of what?

1. Heart

2. Network of arteries and veins

What does the cardiovascular system do?

Circulates blood throughout the body, transporting:

1. Nutrients

2. Oxygen

3. Carbon Dioxide

4. Metabolic waste products

5. Hormones

How many chambers does the heart have?


What does the right side of the heart do?

Collects blood returning from the tissues and moves it through the lungs. (pulmonary circulation)

What does the left side of the heart do?

Receives blood from the lungs and moves it through the tissues of the body and back to the right side of the heart. (systemic circulation)

What are the two components of the heart?

Atriums and ventricles.

What do the atrium do?

Receive blood returning to the heart via veins and pass blood into the ventricles.

What do the ventricles do?

The muscular 'pumps' of the heart, move blood away from the heart via the arteries.

How does blood move through the heart?

Through the pulmonary circuit to the lungs and then through the systemic circuit to the body tissues.

What are the benefits of cardio exercise?

1. Increased red blood cells (increased hemoglobin & oxygen carrying capacity)

2. Increased stroke volume.

3. Increased blood delivery.

4. Increased mitochondria (improved aerobic production of ATP)

5. Increased capillary density (better distribution of oxygen & nutrients to working muscles, improved waste removal)

6. Increased aerobic enzymes (enhanced ability to utilize oxygen)

In a typical adult, how many litres of blood circulates per minute?


What is blood pressure?

The result of blood being pumped out of the ventricles, exerting force against the arterial walls.

What is average blood pressure?


What is systolic pressure?

The top number. Represents the pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries as the heart contracts. Represents peak pressure in the system.

What is diastolic pressure?

Pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries as the heart relaxes and fills again.

As a person becomes more fit, what happens to their blood pressure?

Resting BP stays the same as exercise helps maintain the elasticity of vessels and keep the circulatory system healthy.

What happens to blood pressure during exercise?

1. The heart pumps faster

2. stroke volume increases

3. aorta distends to accomodate increase in blood volume

4. systolic pressure rises quickly to above 200 & levels off

4. diastolic stays relatively stable due to the opening of more capillary beds.

Why are straining exercises (ie. weightlifting) dangerous for people with high blood pressure?

The muscular contractions compress arteries and veins and produce much greater resistance to blood flow. Blood flow back to the heart and brain may be reduced resulting in dizziness or faintness.

How do you determine maximum heart rate?

220 - age of participant.

What is stroke volume?

The amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects in one beat.

How is stroke volume impacted by exercise?

As an individual becomes more fit:

1. ventricles become larger

2. they can hold more blood and contract with more force.

3. Stroke volume increases.

A trained person will be able to deliver more blood per heartbeat than an untrained person. Therefore, a fit heart does not have to work as hard at rest or during exercise.

What is cardiac output? (Q)

The amount of blood that the heart ejects in one minute. (Q = SV x HR)

Why is the resting heart rate of a fit person lower?

The trained heart is a more efficient pump and can pump out more blood per beat (larger stroke volume)

What are the parts of the respiratory system?

1. Left and right lungs

2. Air passageways

(mouth, nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree)

What does the respiratory system do?

Exchanges gas between the bloodstream and the environment.

What two processes take place during respiration?

1. Ventilation - the mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs

2. Diffusion - the exchange of gas in the lungs

Define artery.

any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body.

Define vein.

A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back to the heart.

Aerobic fitness reflects the efficiency of what systems?

1. Cardiovascular

2. Respiratory

3. Muscular

Why is active recovery better than passive?

Assists the heart & circulatory system in redistributing blood to all parts of the body. Prevents blood from pooling in the exercising muscles and helps cells reduce the oxygen debt created at the beginning of exercise.

How do you promote active recovery in your fitness class?

1. Reducing the intensity and impact of the exercise.

2. Reducing the range of motion of movements.

3. Telling participants to consciously begin an active recovery.

Optimal cardiovascular benefits occur in how many training sessions per week?

3-4 days per week, 30 minutes per session.

What are the two best ways to measure exercise intensity?

The Borg Scale (RPE) and heart rate monitoring.

Oxygenated blood is delivered from the heart to the lungs through the

Pulmonary arteries.