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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
case control study
observational and retrospective--> asks "what happened"

Odds ratio-- patients with COPD had a higher odds of a history of smoking than those without COPD
cross sectional study
Asks what is happening


Measures: Disease Prevalance--> can show risk factors associated with the disease, but not causal to the disease
cohort study
observational and prospective

Asks what will happen

can measure the relative risk,

Smokers had a higher risk of developing COPD than did nonsmokers
Clinical Trial
Phase I: healthy volunteers, assess the safety, toxicty and pharmacokinetics of a drug

Phase II: on patietns with the disease of interest: tests efficacy of treatment, optimal dosing and adverse effects

Phase III: large number of patients assigned either to the treatment under investigation, or placebo-- compares the new treatment to the current standard of care
pools data from several studies to come to an overall conclusion--> achieves greater statistical power

may be limited by the bias or quality of the individual studies
proportional of all people WITH the disease who test positve

used for screening in diseases with low prevalence

SNOUT-- sensitivity rules OUT

TP/ (TP + FN)

if 100% sensitive, than TP/ (FP+ FN) = 1 and FN are 0
How do you evaluate diagnostic tests?
Test/ Disease + -
positive skew
mean> median> mode
negative skew
reliable, consistent reproduction of the same thing
the trueness of test measures, the validity of the test
systematic error
reduced accuracy of a test
random error
reduced precision in a test
Type II Error
Saying that NO difference exists, when in fact, one does

"setting a guilty man free"

this is also called the beta

1-beta= Power
leading cause of death in people over 65?
heart disease
what is the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year?
congentital anomalies
leading cause of death in teeneages?
children: accidents, in general
teenagers: MVA
What is the difference between dysthmic disorder and MDD?
persistence of sx, dysthymic, need 2 for 2 years

MDD need 5 of 9 for 2 weeks
Good Samaratan Law
care providers must use standard procedures, and the provider can not request or recieve compensation for their action

the patient may refuse care from the provider
intelligence scale for children-- used to evaluate children from 6--->16 1/2 years

WAIS-- for people older than 16.5
Vineland Social Maturity test
for children with MR
parents are financially responsible for the child until the age of 18; marriage or court order would emancipate

Negative Skew
most common result

curve has the tail on the left
are a disorder of thought content

hallucinations are a disorder of perception
Known complication of buproprion?
It's an atypical antidepressant, inhibit reuptake of NE and Dopamine.

it can lower the seizure threshold--> even more pronounced in bulemic patients with electrolyte abnormalities

fluoxetine is the only FDA approved drug to help prevent relapse in anorexics
Drug often used to treat eating disorders?
Confounding error
committed when another variable other than what was being studied influences the results
atypical depression
hypersomnia, overeating, mood reactivity (rather than persistant sadness)

weight gain, and sensitivity to rejection

treat with MAO inhibitors or SSRI
Major Depressive Disorder, Reccurent
2 times (the 5 or 9 for 2 weeks) with a symptom free interval of 2 months
What kind of sleep patterns are seen in depressed patients?
Multiple night awakenings, early morning awakenings (important screening question)
decreased REM latency, increased REM early in the sleep cycle, increased total REM Sleep
Treatment of Choice for Social Phobias?

Generalized Anxiety Disorders?
SSRI (fluoxetine)

accumulated substrate in Fabry's?
ceramide trihexoside
accumulated substrate in Neiman Pick's?
accumulated substrate in Krabbe's?
Citrate Synthase
takes Acetyl Coa and Oxaloacetate and forms Citrate

this inhibits PFK and allosterically activates acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) the enzyme regulating fatty acid synthesis
Rate limiting step for glycogenolysis, and then gluconeogenesis
Glycogen Phosphorylase

Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphate
What are the protooncogenes
TGF alpha
ERB1 and ERB2
a proto-oncogene--> tumor promotor if activated;

associated with small cellcarcinoma and neuroblastoma
blocks cortisol production by inhibiting 11 beta hydroxylase

this decrease in cortisol should stimulate an increase in ACTH from the pituitary gland.
may be B type (70%) or T-cell type;

T-cell type may present with anterior mediastinal compression (cough, etc)