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Rules for Scientific Naming

The Scientific Name consists of the genus name and the species name.



1. The genus name is always written first, with the letter in upper case.


2. The species name is always written second, with the letter in lower case.


3. The two names are underlined, separately when handwritten and italics when typed.

Prokaryote

~ First Cells


~ Nucleode Region, not bound by a nuclear membrane


~ Lack the ability to divide by mitosis


~ No cyctoskeleton


~ Molecules can enter or leave by diffusion only


~ lack all organelles except ribosomes


~ Cell membrane


~ Cell wall


~ Circular DNA called plasmid


~ Ex) Bacteria

Eukaryote

~ True Cells


~ True membrane bound nucleus


~ Cytoskeleton lends support to the cell


~ molecules can enter/ or leave the cell by active and facilitated transport


~ Contain organelles


~ Cell membrane


~ Cell wall (plant)


~ Have both RNA and DNA


~ Ex) Humans

Criteria to Classify Organisms

1. What type of cells does the organism have?


- Prokaryote or Eukaryote


2. How many cells make up the organisms?


- Unicellular or Multicellular


3. How does the organism obtain nutrients?


- Autotroph (Self producing) or Heterotroph (food by other means)


4. What time of reproduction does the organism engage in?


- Sexual or Asexual


5. Does the organism move?


- Sessile or Motile (Mobile)

Three Domain System

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

Six Domain System (modern)


Eubacteria, Archaeabacteria, Protista, Plantea, Fungi, Animalia

Five Domain System (traditional)

Monera, Protista, Plantea, Fungi, Animalia

Domain Archaea

~ Includes Kingdom Archaeabacteria


~ Prokaryote


~ Unicellular


~ Extremophiles; Obligate Anaerobes (Cannot tolerate oxygen)


~ Believed to resemble the most ancient lifeforms on Earth


~ Examples: Thermophiles, Methanogens, Halophiles

Domain Bacteria

~ Kingdom Eubacteria


~ Prokaryote


~ Unicellular, mostly


~ Lack a nuclear membrane, plastids, and mitochondria


~ Nutrition is mostly by absorption, some photosynthetic or chemosynthetic


~ Reproduction is mostly asexual


~ Examples: Cyanobacteria, mycoplasms, rickettsias, spirochetes

Domain Eukarya

~ Includes kingdom Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia


~ Includes all eukaryotic cells


~unicellular and multicellular


~ contains many cellular organelles


Kingdom Protista

~ Eukaryotic


~ Unicellular and multicellular


~ Nutrition; some autotrophs (photosynthetic) and others are heterotrophs (absorptive) or a combination of these


~ reproduction; some species are sexual and others are asexual


~ Examples: Diatoms, Euglena, Dinoflagellates, Mastiogophores, sarcodines, ciliates


~ Catch All Category

Kingdom Fungi

~ Eukaryotic


~ Maybe be unicellular, colonial or are multicellular


~ Many nuclei distributed in cytoplasm with occasional dividing membrane; cell walls composed of chitin


~ Lack plastids and photosynthetic pigments


~ Nutrition; heterotrophs


~ Reproductive cycle usually includes both sexual and asexual stages


~sessile (non-moving)


~ Water molds, slime molds, imperfect fungi, alga-like fungi, club fungi, sac fungi


~ Ancient group

Kingdom Plantae

~ Eukaryotic


~ multicellular


~ cell walls (cellulose), vacuoles and pigment plastids


~ Nutrition; autotrophs, mostly photosynthetic, some absorptive


~ many specialized tissues and organs


~ reproductive cycle varies between a haploid and diploid generation


~ Examples: Algae, bryophytes, psilopsids, club mosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms

Kingdom Animalia

~ Eukaryotic cells lacking plastids and photosynthetic pigments


~ Multicellular


~ Nutrition; heterotrophs


~ high level of organization and tissue differentiation in higher forms


~ development of sensory- neuromotor systems


~ motility by contractile fibers


~ reproduction primarily sexual


~ Examples: Flatworms, roundworms, sponges, birds, reptiles, fish, mammals, spiders, mollusks, insects, echinoderms, amphibians, annelids

Taxonomy Ranks

1. Kingdom


2. Phylum


3. Class


4. Order


5. Family


6. Genus


7. Species

Natural unit of classification

~ Species


~ Because they can interbreed and there is disagreement among biologist of classification above the species level

Archaeabacteria

They are unicellular microorganisms that often inhabit extreme environments. They are classified under the archea domain.

Eubacteria

Describes true bacteria, which includes all types of bacteria (except archaebacteria)

Class

Group of closely related orders

Animalia

Kingdom that contains multicellular heterotrophic organisms whose cells lack cell walls

Binomial Nomenclature

It is a classification system where organisms are named with a two part, scientific title.

Kingdom

A taxonomic group of closely related phyla.

Protista

Kingdom that includes all single-celled eukaryotic yogic organisms.

Biochemical Relationship

It is the relationship that organisms have through their chemical make up.

Evolutionary Relationship

They are the relationships between a set of organisms which are otherwise called taxa.

Order

A group of closely related families

Species

Most basic category of organism classification (lowest taxonomic rank)

Carlous Linnaeus

A swedish botanist who proposed the development of the modern biological nomenclature system.

Family

A group of closely related genera

Plantae

Kingdom that includes multicellular autotrophic organisms

Sub-Phylum

A taxonomic rank of organisms between phylum and class.

Dichotomous Key

A reference tool that is composed of a series of alternative choices which lead to the identification of a species.

Phlyum

Group of closely related classes

Genus

A group of closely related species

Embryological Relationship

It is the comparison between embryos that share the same habitat to help with the classification of organisms.

Taxonomy

Science of naming organisms and assigning them to groups

Fungi

Kingdom that includes heterotrophic organisms that build cell walls that typically do not contain cellulose

Hemoglobin

Red iron-containing pigment in red blood cells of vertebrates that increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.

Cytochrome

Protein molecule found in the electron transport chain of all organisms

Taxon

Group into which organisms are classified

Chemosynthetic

Make their own food from chemicals

Absorptive

Absorb their food from dead or decaying organisms

Ingestive

Eat food that is "caught"

Cladogram

~ Based on Phylogeny (Study of evolutionary relationships)


~ Diagram; to make one you must look at the animals in question and identify the similar and unique characteristics of each and order them from general feature to most specific feature.

Cladistics

Form of analysis that looks at feature of organisms that are considered "innovations" or newer feature that serve some kind of purpose.

Where does the least number of similarities begin in the taxa? Where does the largest number of similarities begin in the taxa?

~ Largest; Least number of similarities begins with the top of the taxa (kingdom)


~Least; Largest number of similarities is at the bottom of the taxa (species)