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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
two types of vocal cords:
true- vibrate to make sound
false- no sound
the true vocal cord is located ______
on the inside of the glottis
the false vocal cord is located _____
outside at the base of the larnyx
an adams apple is made up of ______ cartliage of the ______
thyroid cartiage
of the larnyx
elastic cartliage whos function is to keep food out of the respiratory tract
this hangs in the back of the oral cavity and its function is to keep food out of the nasal cavity
The flow of air into the body:
nares->nasopharnyx->pharnyx->glottis->trachea->right and left bronchi->broncioles->alveoli
three sites of gas exchange:
1. lungs
2. tissues
3. blood
gas exchange in the lungs occurs at the ______.
respiratory membrane
the respiratory membrane of the lungs are made of ______ epithelium of ______ and ______
-simple squamous
-capillaries and alveoli
when gas exhange occurs in the lung, oxygen diffuses into blood and binds to _____ and carbon dioxide diffuses into ____ from the blood.
gas exchange in tissues occurs where?
in capillary beds
during gas exchange in tissues, oxygen diffuses from the blood into _____. Carbon dioxide diffuses from _____ into _____.
- cells
-cells into blood
during gas exchange in the blood, carbon dioxide combines with _____ to make _____. That product will then dissasociate into ____ and ____. finally, hydrogen then binds to _______.
-water to make carbonic acid(H2CO3)
-HCO3 (bicarbonate) and H+ (hydrogen)
-H+ binds to hemoglobin
HCO3 is a _____ ion. this is also known as a ______
-bicarbonate ion
why do cells need oxygen? (3)
-cellular respiration
-final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration
-can accept 2 electrons to make water (H2O)
the two pleural membranes are _____ and _____.
visceral and parietal
the visceral membrane lines _______. the parietal mambrane lines the ______.
-lines lungs (outside)
-lines thorasic cavity (inside)
what does the serous fluid between the visceral and parietal membranes do?
it reduces friction which is helpful with breathing
the _____ causes the diaphragm to _______ for inspiration.
-phrenic nerve
-contract for inspiration
breathing involves ________.
changes in pressure gradients
Inspiration: diaphragm ______: _______ volume of thorasic cavity:
-increases volume
when there is a decrease of air pressure in the thorasic cavity, _______.
air rushes in (inspiration)
what areas of the brain control respiration?
-medulla oblongata and pons
Goblet cells secrete ______
True or false:
Although goblet cells secrete mucus, we do not want mucus to get into the lungs.
goblet cells secrete mucus that _______.
grabs debris and microorganisms
cilia move mucus _____ and ______ of lungs.
-away from and out of lungs
why dont we want mucus in the lungs?
it makes gas exchange more difficult
where is the site of gas exchange
the two types of alveoli are :
1. type I
2. type II
type I alveoli are ________.
actual simple squamous alveolar cells (traditional)
type II alveoli are ____ that secrete _____.
-cuboidal cells that secrete surfactant
what does surfactant secreted by Type II alveoli do?
it lowers friction to breath
do premi babies have surfactant?
_____ causes breathing
difficulty breathing bc of a thickened respiratory membrane describes ______
when someone has emphysema, they will ____
pump more oxygen in to increase the chance of oxygen dissusing. also to inc the amount of oxygen there
the problem with emphysema is that the person has trouble getting ____ out which can cause ______ that may be fatal.
-CO2 (carbon dioxide)
when someone has emphysema is applies to their _______.
How does oxygen move from the lungs to the blood? It is driven by ______.
- simple diffusion
- a concentration gradient
____ is a chemical or substance that controls changes in pH
An acid buffer releases ____ ions into a solution while a base buffer _____.
-binds H+
when an acid buffer releases H+ it ______ the pH. How does this effect H+ and pH levels?
-lowers (decreases)
- increases H+
- decreases pH
when you have an acid buffer, strong acids will _______
completely disasociate
ex. HCl->H+ + Cl-
with an acid buffer, weak acids ______.
-only partially disassociate
ex. carbonic acid: H2CO3->H+ + HCO3-
a base buffer binds hydrogen and takes them out of the solution, _____ pH
A Buffering system in the blood is ________
bicarbonate ion
When pH is low, which ion binds the extra hydrogen ions, turning it into ______, ______ pH to a normal level.
-Bicarbonate ion
-carbonic acid
If pH is high, the Bicarbonate ion (buffering system of the blood) will ______, lowering pH
-give up H+
another buffering system of the blood that does the same thing as bicarbonate is ________ and ______
-proteins (ex. hemoglobin)
the _____ acts as a blood buffer system by getting rid of or holding on to ____ as needed. It is _____.
-respiratory system
-fast acting
the ____ acts as a blood buffer system by removing extra ions from the blood into urine. it is ____ and more for _______.
-renal system
-slow acting
a _____ molecule can be an acid or base and therefore can buffer in basic or acidic conditions. alot of _____ molecules are this. (ex.______)
-ex. hemoglobin
acid =ph____
acid= pH below 7
neutral= pH= 7
base/alkaline= pH above 7 (up to 14)
too much CO2- may cause ____ bc it will combine with water, making ____ that will build up and pass ____. (this acid will disassociates into a lot of ____ ions which will ____pH)
-carbonic acid
-hydrogen ions
-carbonic acid disassociates into alot of H+ ions, wihch will lower pH
when hyperventilation occurs, ____ is breathed out and pH ____ so you will need buffers.It removes ____ quickly from cells which can cause ______.
-free H+ molecules
- rises
-CO2- (carbon dioxide)
Normal pH of blood = ______. anything above leads to ____ and anything below leads to ______.
7.35- 7.45

-too many antacids
-anything that decreases your normal metabolic rate
metabolic alkalosis
-too much asprin
-too much alcohol
-strenuous exercise
-anything that increases your metabolic rate
metabolic acidosis
where will the bronciole be located on the arteriole slide?
next to a hylein cartliage piece
what does rebreathing do?
if someone is hyperventillating, you can breath into a paper bag to take back in CO2-. Hyperventillation can cause alkalosis. The simple solution is REBREATHING
rebreathing is a simple solution for ______
if you rebreath too long, ____
remove the bag
acidosis: lots of ____ in blood and _____ in urine giving a ____ pH. to fix it, we go through _____ that takes out extra H+ ions, ____ pH to a normal level.
- high CO2- in blood and high H+ in urine, giving a LOW pH
-filtration, increasing pH
a pH of 7.68 would describe what condition?
when we have alkalosis, there is ____ CO2 in blood, ____ H+ in urine, and _____ pH, so the blood will be filtered (filtration) because there is a ___ in the number of hydrogen ions and a ____ in the number of bicarbonate ions. It ____ bicarbonate ions so it CANT bind. this ___ pH back to normal level.
-it gets rid of extra bicarbonate ions, decreasing pH back to a normal level
BPM means______
breaths per minute
what happened to the respiration rate when we increased metabolism? H+ ions? HCO3 (bicarbonate ion)? Blood pH?
the respiration rate increased. Blood pH is still within normal range but fell slightly high.
H+= increased
Blood pH= decreased
as metabolic rate rises (once we hit acidosis), BPM ____, Blood pH _____, PCO2 (how much CO2 is in blood)______, H+_____, HCO3______.
-BPM increased
-blood pH decreased
-PCO2 increased
-H+ increased
-HCO3 decreased
when you lower your metabolic rate (once you hit alkalosis), BPM ____, blood ph _____, PCO2 _____, H+ ______, HCO3 _____
-BPM decreased
-blood pH increased
-PCO2 decreased
-H+ decreased
-HCO3 increased
three types of muscle:
1. cardiac
2. skeletal
3. smooth
this type of muscle has striations, intercalated discs, and branching
cardiac muscle
this type of muscle has striations and is multinucleated.
skeletal muscle
this type of muscle has a central nuclei, NO STRIATIONS, and is spindle shapped
smooth muscle
striations of skeletal muscle are the ____ and ____ bands of ____ and _____.
light and dark bands of actin and myosin
skeletal muscle is _____ and attached to ______
CT around muscle fibers is ______
CT around fasicles is ______
CT around the entire muscle is ______
epitheleal tissues functions include ___ _____ and _____
protection absorbtion and secretion
if a tissue contains 1 layers of cells it is ____ and if it has more than one it is ______
what type of epithelium lines the glymerilis?
simple squamous
pseudostratified columnar epithelium: look for ___ and _____
goblet cells and cillia
transitional epithelium: look for ______.
transitional cells (big cells at the top)
smooth muscle produces ____ movement
when looking at cardiac muscle, look for ______
intercalated discs
the lung and kidney are _____ epithelium
simple squamous
trachea is _____ epithelium
pseudostratifies columnar
the mouth is made of _____ epithelium
stratified squamous
Where can you find the following types of muscle tissue:
cardiac- walls of heart
smooth- walls of hollow organs
skeletal- in skeletal muscles attatched to bone or skin
the intestines have _____ epithelium
simple columnar
your skin is _____ epithelium
stratified squamous
during expiration, the diaphragm is _____ to push air out and during inspiration it is ______ to breath air in
-domed shaped
expiration: _____ volume, _____ pressure

inspiration: _____ volume, _____ pressure
expiration: dec volume, inc pressure

inspiration: inc volume, dec pressure
the primary type of epithelium in the lung is _____; however, if you see a bronchiole, it will be ________. If you see an artery or vein, youll see smooth muscle that is lined with _______.
-simple squamous
-simple columnar
-simple squamous
on the trachea slide, you will find _____ epithelia lining the lumen of the trachea. youll see ______ within the epithelia. underneath the epithelia is loose areolar CT that will contain ______ glands which are ______ epithelia. underneath the CT layer youll find ______. it usually stains purple and you will have _____ within the lucanae. Under that is a smooth muscle called the ______ muscle
-cilliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-goblet cells
-seromucus glands
-hyaline cartliage
-trachalis muscle
the esophegus will have 2 layers of _____ lined with non-keratinized __________ epithelia.
-smooth muscle
-stratified squamous epithelia
when air reaches the alveoli of the lungs at the respiratory canal, what happens to oxygen?
it will diffuse and then bind to hemoglobin in red blood cells.
when blood moves from the arterioles to capillaries in tissues, what happens?
-oxygen diffuses into cells
-water is given off
-cells that once contained oxygen are now oxygen poor and have CARBON DIOXIDE which will eventually diffuse into alveoli
the total exchange of air in and out of the lungs is _____
vital capacity
a whitish, fibrous membrane that connects a muscle to a bone or fascia.
why would breaking your neck cause you to stop breathing?
the phrenic nerve may be severed, leading to paralysis of the diaphragm and cessation of breathing
do you really have a funny bone? what is it you are hitting?
no, youre hitting your ulnar nerve
what is the largest nerve in the body? what would happen if you cut it?
sciatic nerve- lower limb impairments (ex footdrop)
what is also called your vocie box?
the body must get rid of CO2 (waste). the body recycles CO2 into ____ which makes its way to the lungs
-HCO3 (72%)
hemoglobin is a ____ molecule
H+ is neutralized by ______
during an anxiety attack, the person hyperventilates and breathing is deep and fast. CO2 ____ and pH ______. this leads to a condition called ______. Blood vessels constrict, dizzy, faint and the respiratory response is shallow, slow breathing. CO2 then ____ and pH goes back to normal level.
-hypocapnia(low blood CO2)
-CO2 then rises
shallow slow breathing is called ________
depth and breathing rate increases during ______
when CO2 is high, what serves as a stimulus and what is sensed by the brain?
-CO2 serves as the stimulus
-H+ is sensed by brain
if CO2 is high, H+ in CSF is ____ which is a condition called ______ (high blood CO2). depth and rate of breathing is increased, excess CO2 is removed from blood and pH returns to normal
CO2 diffuses from ____ to _____
from blood to CSF
there is 0 to little ______ in the CSF to buffer pH change so any change is significant
In the CSF: CO2+H2O->_____->_______
CO2+H2O->H2CO3->H+ + HCO3-
in the acid base buffer system: from the RBC, HCO3 dissuses into _____
A ____ is when leaving the RBC, HCO3-leaves behind a positive enviornment. This charge imbalance draws C1 into the cell.
chloride shift
most of CO2 enters _____
_____ in the RBC catalyses the reaction of forming H2CO3 (H2O+CO2->H2CO3)
carbonic anhydrase
what is the formula if hydrogen increases in the blood? What happens to the pH at this time?
high H= low pH
what is the formula if hydrogen decreases in the blood?What happens to the pH at this time?
H2CO3->H+ HCO3
low H=high pH
when CO2 diffuses from the blood to the CSF, in the CSF the formula is _____.
CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3 -> H + HCO3