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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensory division of PNS
1. somatic sensory (skin)
2. visceral sensory (stomach)
motor division of PNS
1. somatic NS - voluntary motor (skeletal muscle)
2. autonomic NS - involuntary visceral motor (cardiac/smooth muscle, glands)
-Sympathetic division
-parasympathetic division
sympathetic division
division of ANS

mobilizes body systems during activity

ex: heart muscle
parasympathetic division
division of ANS

conserves energy; promotoes housekeeping fxns during rest

ex: bladder
regeneration of peripheral nerves
1. axon fragmented at injury site
2. macrophages clean out
3. AXON SPROUTS (filaments) grow through REGENERATION TUBE formed by SCHWANN CELLS
4. new myelin sheath formed
classes of sensory receptor cells: stimulus type
1. mechanoreceptors (mechanical force)
2. thermoreceptors (temp)
3. photoreceptors (light)
4. chemoreceptors (chem)
5. nociceptors (tissue damage/pain)
classes of sensory receptor cells: location of receptor/stimulus
1. exteroreceptors (outside body)
2. interoreceptors (within body)
3. proprioreceptors (internal stretch receptors)
classes of sensory receptor cells: structural type
1. simple receptors - general sensory receptors

2. complex receptors - special sense organs
unencapsulated general sensory receptors (3)
1. free nerve endings
2. tactile discs (Merkel discs)
3. hair follicle receptors
encapsulateed general sensory receptors (6)
1. Meissner's corpuscles (tactile)
2. Pacinian corpuscles (lamellated)
3. ruffini endings
4. muscle spindles
5. golgi tendon organs
6. joint kinesthetic receptors
free nerve endings of sensory neurons
(unencapsulated general)
L: extero, intero, and proprio

S: thermo, chemo, mechano, nociceptors

in body: most BT; dense CT; epithelia
modified free nerve endings; Tactile discs (Merkel discs)
(unencapsulated general)
L: extero
S: mechano

in body: basal layer of epidermis
hair follicle receptors
(unencapsulated general)
L: extero
S: mechano

in body: in/surrounding hair follicles
Meissner's corpuscles (tactile corpuscles)
(capsulated general)
L: extero
S: Mechano

in body: dermal papillae of hairless skin
Pacinian corpuscles (lamellated corpuscles)
(capsulated general)
L: extero, intero, proprio
S: mechano

body: dermis/hypodermis; tendons, ligaments...
Ruffini endings
(capsulated general)
L: extero and proprio
S: mechano

body: deep in dermis/hypodermis, joint capsules
muscle spindles
(capsulated general)
L: proprioreceptors
S: mechano

body: skel muscle
golgi tendon organs
(capsulated general)
L: proprio
S: mechano

body: tendons
joint kinesthetic receptors
(encapsulated general)
L: proprio
S: mechano and nociceptors

body: joint capsules of synovial joints
sensation at receptor level (criteria)
1. type of stimuli (specificity)
2. receptive field
3.energy --> receptor potential --> threshold
tonic receptors
provide sustained response to stimuli

ex: nociceptors and most proprioceptors
phasic receptors
quickly adaptive; send short bursts;
only send info when stimulus strength changes

ex: Pacinian and Meissner's corpuscles
Circuit level (sensory processing)
1st order-->2nd and 3rd order neurons

via reticular formation (of thalamus) to cerebellum and somatosensory cortex
Perceptual level (sensory processing)
in cerebral cortex

1. perceptual detection (quality and pattern)

2. Sensation (spatial discr. and magnitude of freq of AP's and # receptors activated)
Pathway of reflex arcs
1. stimulus-->receptor
2. sensory(AP)-->CNS
3. sensory(AP)-->motor neuron
5. effector organ-->response
spinal reflexes
somatic reflexes mediated by spinal cord (brain not required)
1. stretch reflex
2. golgi tendon reflex
3. flexor reflex
4. crossed-extensor reflex
muscle spindle composition
noncontractile centers
-wrapped in sensory nerve endings (detect stretch)

contractile ends
-activated by gamma-motor neurons (adjust spindle length)
stretch reflex
muscle STRETCH is detected by spindles

primary sensory--->CNS

ex: knee jerk
crossed extensor reflex
stimulus-->one side of body flexes, one side extends
olfactory nerve I
nasal epithelium-->cribriform plate-->olfactory bulb (to frontal lobe)
sensory-smell (olfactory receptor cells)
optic nerve II
retina-->optic canal-->optic tract (to thalamus-->visual cortex)

sensory-vision (retinal photoreceptors)
oculomotor nerve III
midbrain-->sup orbital fissure-->eye muscles (to pons)
trochlear nerve IV
midbrain-->sup orbital fissuree-->one eye muscle (to pons)

somatic motor-sup oblique muscle
sensory-proprioreceptive feedback
trigeminal opthalmic division (V1)
anterior scalp/superior face-->sup orbital fissure->pons

somatosensory-forehead, nose, eyelid, and cornea
(trigeminal ganglion)
trigeminal maxillary division (V2)
central face-->foramen rotundum-->pons

somatosensory-upper palate, jaw, lip, cheek, nasal cavity
(trigeminal ganglion)
trigeminal mandibular division (V3)
inferior face-->foramen ovale-->pons

somatic motor-chewing muscles (temporalis, pterygoids, masseter, digastric)
somatosensory-jower jaw, chin, tongue
(trigeminal ganglion)
sensory-proprioreceptive feedback
abducens nerve VI
pons-->sup orbital fissure-->one eye muscle (most lateral)

somatic motor-lateral rectus muscle

damage=internal strabismus
facial nerve VII
pons-->internal acoustic meatus-->muscles and glands of face

SM-superficial skeletal muscles of forehead, eyes, lips, jaw (expression, blinking)
AM- nasal and lacrimal glands (pterygopalatine gang.)
Sensory-taste buds (geniculate ganglion); proprioceptive feedback
vestibulocochlear VIII
ear-->internal acoustic meatus-->to pons (to cortex)

cochlear branch- sound from chochlea (spiral gang)
vest. branch- equil. from bestibule/semicircular canals (vestibular gang)
glossopharyngeal nerve IX
medulla oblongata-->jugular foramen-->tongue,throat

SM- activates tongue (speech) and pharynx (swallowing)
AM-parotid salivary gland (otic gang.)
Sensory- tastebuds from back tongue, carotid sinus, somatosensory from pharynx
(superior/inferior ganglia)
vagus X
medulla-->jugular foramen-->throughout thorax/abdomen

SM- larynx (speaking), pharynx (swallowing)
AM- parasympathetic control: heart, lungs, dig. tract, excretory organs (dispersed gang)
Sensory- visceral sensory afferents from carotid artery, aorta, dig. tract, post. taste buds (sup/inf gang); proprioceptive feedback from neck
accessory nerve XI
spinal rootlets (C1-C5)-->jugular foramen-->neck

SM-trapezius, sternocleidomastoid
Sensory- proprioceptive feedback
hyoglossal nerve XII
medulla-->hypoglossal canal-->tongue

SM-tongue muscles (mixing food, swallowing, speech)
sensory- proprioceptive feedback
motor cranial nerves (4)
oculomotor III
abducens VI
accessory XI
hypoglossal XII
sensory cranial nerves (5)
olfactory I
optic II
V1 and V2
vestibulocochlear VIII
mixed cranial nerves (4)
facial VII
glossopharyngeal IX
vagus X
cranial nerves with autonomic AND somatic motor functions
oculomotor III
facial VII
glossopharyngeal IX
vagus X
cranial nerves with somatosensory function
facial VII
glossopharyngeal IX
pathway of sympathetic neuron
CNS-->lightly myelinated axon-->ganglion/adrenal medulla-->unmyelinated axon/blood vessel-->NE-->+/- effect
pathway of parasympathetic neuron
CNS-->lightly myelinated axon---->ganglion-->unmyelinated axon-->ACh-->+/- effect
pathway of somatic nervous system
CNS-->heavily myelinated axon-->releases ACh at skeletal muscle-->+ effect
nerves and ganglia/plexuses of parasympathetic division
oculomotor III-->cilliary gang.
facial VII-->pterygopalatine/ submandibular gang.
glossopharyngeal IX-->otic gang.
vagus X-->cardiac/ pulmonary/ esophageal/celiac plexuses
plevic splanchnic nerves-->hypogastic plexus
pathway for sympathetic neuron synapse: same level
ventral root--> ventral ramus--> white ramus communicans--> sympathetic trunk gang.--> gray ramus communicans-->effector
pathway for sympathetic neuron synapse: higher/lower level
ventral root--> ventral ramus--> gray ramus communicans--> sympathetic gang--> sympathetic trunk--> gray communicans--> effector
pathway for sympathetic neuron synapse: distant collateral ganglion ANTERIOR to column
ventral root--> ventral ramus--> white ramus communicans--> sympathetic gang.--> splanchnic nerve-->collateral ganglion-->target organ
cholinergic receptors for ACh
1. Nicotinic (neuromuscular jxn, post-gang. neurons, adrenal medulla)

2. muscarinic (all other targets)
accessory eye structures
tarsal plates
tarsal glands (lubrication)
conjuctival membrane (inside of eyelid and white of eye)
conjucntival sac (lubricating mucous)
superficial eye structures
palpebrae (eyelids)
lacrimal caruncle with sebaceous glands
lacrimal apparatus
lacrimal gland releases dilute tears
drained by lacrimal canaliculi-->lacrimal sac-->nasal cavity

*lubricates, antibiotic
fast directed movements
fibrous tunic
outermost eye layer (dense CT)

white sclera with clear cornea in front (with epithelia and nociceptors)
vascular tunic (uvea)
middle eye layer

ciliary body and zonule
choroid (BVs)
iris (smooth mus)
sensory tunic (retina)
innermost layer with photorec

pigmented layer--> photorec--> bipolar cells--> ganglion cells

also horizontal and amacrine cells
posterior retina (none in ant)
density declines laterally

bright light, color vision, precise
anterior retina (not post)
dim light, peripheral vision, fuzzy
macula lutea
oval region at posterior pole; contains fovea centralis
bending of light as it passes through objects of DIFF densities
transp objects with curved surfaces to refract light at precice angles
convex lenses
focus light at a focal point; image reversed
emmetropic eye
distant vision; relaxed ciliary muscles; thin lens

mechanisms for close vision (3)
1. accomodation of lenses
2. constriction of pupils (PSNS; accomodation pupillary reflex)
3. convergence of eyeballs
myopic eye
nearsighted; eyeball too long; focal point in front of retina

correction=concave lense
hyperopic eye
farsighted; eyeball too short; focal point behind retina

correction=convex lenses