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55 Cards in this Set

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What is the extracellular matrix (ECM)

The meshwork surrounding animal cells; consists of glycoproteins and polysaccharides synthesized and secreted by cells.

The meshwork surrounding animal cells; consists of glycoproteins and polysaccharides synthesized and secreted by cells.

What is an electron microscope (EM)?

A microscope that uses magnets to focus an electron beam through, or onto the surface of, a specimen. An electron microscope achieves a hundredfold greater resolution than a light microscope.

What is a prokaryotic cell

A type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles, found only in domains Bacteria and Archaea

What is the nucleolus?

A structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with proteins imported from the cytoplasm to make ribosomal subunits.

What is the cell wall?

A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi and some protists, protects the cell and helps maintain its shape

What is the chromatin?

The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended from taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing



(found within the nucleus)

What is a transport vesicle? Where is it "generated" from?

A small membranous sac in a eukaryotic cells cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell. The vesicle buds from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi and eventually fuses with another organelle or the plasma membrane, releasing its conte...

A small membranous sac in a eukaryotic cells cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell. The vesicle buds from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi and eventually fuses with another organelle or the plasma membrane, releasing its contents.



When the molecule (i.e. glycoprotein) is ready for export from the ER it is packaged in a transport vesicle and goes to the golgi

What is the peroxisome?

An organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.

What is a glycoprotein?

A protein with one or more short chains of sugars attached to it. (Found in the ECM)


 


Produced in the Rough ER

A protein with one or more short chains of sugars attached to it. (Found in the ECM)



Produced in the Rough ER

What is a light microscope?

An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images and project them into a viewers eye or onto photographic film

What is the golgi appartus (what is it's function)?

An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of membranous sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).


 


 


The golgi apparatus serves as a molecular warehouse and processing station for pr...

An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of membranous sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).




The golgi apparatus serves as a molecular warehouse and processing station for products manufactured by the ER.

What is the cellular metabolism?

All the chemical activities of a cell

What is a scanning electron microscope vs a transmission electron microscope?

Scanning electron microscope - A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface details of a cell or other specimens



Transmission Electron Microscope - a microscope uses an electron beam to study the INTERNAL structure of thinly sectioned specimens

What is a nucleoid?

A non membrane bounded region in a prokaryotic cell where the DNA is concentrated.

What is the endosymbiont theory?

The theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell. The engulfed cell and its host cell then evolved into a single organism.

What is a vacuole? What types of functions does it have? Provide an example

A membrane enclosed sac that is part of the endomembrane system of a eukaryotic cell and has diverse functions in different kinds of cells'


 


e.g Food vacoules form when a cell ingests food. A plant cell has a large central vacoule whi...

A membrane enclosed sac that is part of the endomembrane system of a eukaryotic cell and has diverse functions in different kinds of cells'



e.g Food vacoules form when a cell ingests food. A plant cell has a large central vacoule which helps the cell grow size by absorbing water, and the storage of chemicals and wastes.

What is the difference between animal cell vacoules and plant cell vacoules

Animal cells do have vacuoles, but they are smaller, larger in number (plant cells usually have just one or a few large vacuoles) AND serve a somewhat different purpose than those of plants. Animal vacuoles may also be called endosomes, lysosomes, or secretory vesicles.

What is a centrosome?

A structure found in animal cells which generates microtubules and that is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.

What is cytosol?

The jelly like fluid portion of the cytoplasm (in which cellular components are suspended).

What is crista?

The folds of the inside of the mitochondrial membrane. They increase the membranes surface area, enhancing mitochrondion's ability to produce ATP.


 

The folds of the inside of the mitochondrial membrane. They increase the membranes surface area, enhancing mitochrondion's ability to produce ATP.


What is the granum, which type of cell is it found in?

Granum is a stack of membrane-bound thylakoids in the chloroplast (the stack of poker chips)


 


These are the sites where the light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynth...

Granum is a stack of membrane-bound thylakoids in the chloroplast (the stack of poker chips)



These are the sites where the light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis

What are the ribosomes and what are their function? Where are the ribosomes found?

Ribosomes make proteins for use in the cell and for export. If the nucleus is the cells command center, then the ribosomes are the cellular components that use instructions from the nucleus, written in mRNA, to build proteins.


 


In eukar...

Ribosomes make proteins for use in the cell and for export. If the nucleus is the cells command center, then the ribosomes are the cellular components that use instructions from the nucleus, written in mRNA, to build proteins.



In eukaryotic cells, the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus.



Ribosomes are either free (found in the cytosol) or bound (found on the rough ER)

What are the integrin, what are their function, and where are they found?

The integrin are membrane proteins that interconnects the ECM and the cytoskeleton in animal cells.


 


Integrins have the function of integration: they transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton. Thus, the cytoskeleton can inf...

The integrin are membrane proteins that interconnects the ECM and the cytoskeleton in animal cells.



Integrins have the function of integration: they transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton. Thus, the cytoskeleton can influence the organization of the ECM and vice versa.

What is the endomembrane system? What 6 organelles does it contain?

Many organelles of a eukaryotic cells are connected in the endomembrane system. A network of membranes inside a cell.



It contains: 1. the nuclear envelope, 2. the ER, 3. the golgi apparatus 4. lysosomes, 5. vacoules, 6. and the plasma membrane

What is the nuclear envelope?

A double membrane that encloses the nucleus, perforated with pores that regulate traffic with the cytoplasm. 

A double membrane that encloses the nucleus, perforated with pores that regulate traffic with the cytoplasm.

What is an organelle?

An organelle is a "tiny organ", (membrane enclosed structure) which performs specific functions in the cell.

What is the smooth ER, and what is its function? Where are large amounts found?

The portion of the ER that lacks ribosomes.



Functions:


1. Synthesizes lipids (found in cells of ovaries and testes to synthesize the steroid sex hormones)


2. processes toxins (found in the liver cells)


3. storage of calcium ions (found in muscle cells)

What is the cell theory?

The theory that all living things are composed of cells and that cells come from other cells.

What is the plasma membrane?

The cells surface. The plasma membrane forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings. 


 


Consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. 

The cells surface. The plasma membrane forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings.



Consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.

What is a microtubule, what does it make up?

The thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins, found in cilia and flagella.

What are the three main kinds of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton?

1. microtubules (thickest)


2. microfilaments (thinnest)


3. intermeidate filaments 

1. microtubules (thickest)


2. microfilaments (thinnest)


3. intermeidate filaments

What is the stroma? what type of cell is it found in?

The dense fluid, which contains chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes.

The dense fluid, which contains chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes.

What is the Endoplastic Reticulum (ER)? What are two types?

ER is the major manufacturing sites in a cell.



Ribosome studded is the rough ER and ribosome free is the smooth ER.

What is the mitochondrial matrix?

within the mitochondria, contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes, as well as enzymes that catalyze some of the reactions of cellular respiration. 

within the mitochondria, contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes, as well as enzymes that catalyze some of the reactions of cellular respiration.

What is a chromosome?

All cells have one or more chromosomes, which carry genes made of DNA.



A chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

What are flagella?

Long projections that project a prokaryotic cell through its liquid environment. (They differ between eukaryotes and prokaryotes) 


 


Have a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules covered by the cells plasma membrane. 

Long projections that project a prokaryotic cell through its liquid environment. (They differ between eukaryotes and prokaryotes)



Have a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules covered by the cells plasma membrane.

What is a eukaryotic cell?

A type of cell that has a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells.

What is a lysosome?

A membrane enclosed sac of digestive enzymes (digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells).



Digests food or damaged organelles.

What is the rough ER?

The portion of the ER with ribosomes attached that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins..



In addition to making secretory proteins, rough ER is a membrane making machine for the cell.

What is the ECM

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a meshwork surrounding animal cells; consists of glycoproteins and polysaccharides synthesized and secreted by cells. 

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a meshwork surrounding animal cells; consists of glycoproteins and polysaccharides synthesized and secreted by cells.

What is the cytoskeleton?

A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. 

A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules.

What is a vesicle?

A sac of membrane in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.

What is plasmodesma?

An open channel in a plant cell wall that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.

What is the cytoplasm?

The contents of the eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles; can also refer to the interior of a prokaryotic cell

What is the cilia?

The short numerous appendages that propel protists such as pamecium. Also have the 9+2 arrangement covered by the cells plasma membrane.

What is the mitochondria?

The money maker organelle! Maker of ATP, a cells energy source.



Where cellular respiration occurs

What is the thylakoid?

A flattened membranous sac inside a chloropast (suspended in the chroma). 


 


Thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll and the molecular complexes of the light reactions of photosynthesis. A stack of thylakoids is called a granum. 

A flattened membranous sac inside a chloropast (suspended in the chroma).



Thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll and the molecular complexes of the light reactions of photosynthesis. A stack of thylakoids is called a granum.

What is the chloroplast, and what three structures does it contain?

A chloroplast is an organelle found in plants and algae that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds (sugars) form carbon dioxide and water

A chloroplast is an organelle found in plants and algae that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds (sugars) form carbon dioxide and water

What would distinguish an animal cell from a bacterial cell?

A cell wall

What do the rough ER, Golgi Apparatus, and Lysosomes have in common?

They are constructed of interrelated membranes

How are cell surface proteins exported out of the cell?

The protein is folded, then packaged for transport to the Golgi apparatus

What structure is essential for the succesful operation of the endomembrane system?

Transport Vesicles

What mitochrondrial feature enhances cell respiration?

Cristae

Where are chlorophyll molecules located within the chloroplasts?

Embedded in the thylakoid membrane

Many researchers think that the first eukaryotic cells obtained energy for life sustaining functions from organic compounds. What organelle was most likely appeared last in eukaryotic cells?

Chloroplast