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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Plant Needs:




Vascular System

Leaves: Collection and conversion of solar energy

Stems: Positioning and support of leaves

Roots: Anchorage and absorption

Vascular System: Transport

Leaf Structure


-Cuticle ( waxy substance that retards water loss)

-Guard cells (help with opening and closing the stomata) with stomata (pore that aids in gas exchange)

Stomata can be found on top but usually on the bottom.

Mesophyll (substance in the middle of the epidermis and the endodermis)

-Parenchyma (unspecialized cells)

-Dicots with palisade (more directly related to light dependent reactions)

and spongy (more directly related to light independent reactions (dark cells))

Vein (vascular bundle)

Stem Structure


Cortex (between the bundles of vascular tissue and the epidermis)





Sclerids (nodule form of sclerenchyma)

Scleros-means hard reinforced

-Vascular Tissue



Vascular bundles (houses the xylem and phloem)

Procambium=vascular cambium

Dicots have pith

Monocots have ground parenchyma

Ground Tissue

Collenchyma provides extra structural support, particularly in regions of new growth. Sclerenchyma cells have thick lignified secondary walls and often die when mature. Sclerenchyma provides the main structural support to a plant.

Vascular Tissues

Xylem (water, from the roots)

Phloem (products of photosynthesis, from the leaves)


Dead upon reaching full development


Vessel member (element)


Sieve-tube member (element) (most alive members)

Companion cell

Root Structure

Epidermis with root hairs

Roots hairs 1 cell thick

-ase: enzymes

Nitrogenase- enzyme made to break up N2 in plants.


Endodermis with Casparian strips

Stele: Middle section containing the xylem and phloem in dicots)

Apoplastic pathway vs symplastic pathway

Apoplastic pathway vs symplastic pathway
The apoplastic and symplastic pathways. Within a plant, the apoplast is the free diffusional space outside the plasma membrane. It is interrupted by the Casparian strip in roots, by air spaces between plant cells and by the plant cuticle.

Water in the apoplast pathway moves from cell to cell via spaces in the cellulose cell walls until it reaches the endodermis. At the endodermis, there is the 'apoplast block' - the cellulose cell walls of the cells of the endodermis have a substance called suberin which is impermeable and prevents the movement of water. The suberin makes up what is called the Casparian strip. At this point, all the water has to move into the vacuolar and symplast pathways. The function of the apoplast block is to prevent harmful substances from entering the xylem.The symplast pathway is where water moves from cell to cell in the cytoplasm via the plasma membranes and plasmodesmata. Water moves along the root by osmosis down a water potential gradient (as water moves into one cell, this cell then has a higher water potential than the adjacent cell, so water moves from cell to cell by osmosis). Water moves in this way along in the cytoplasm from the root hair cell to the endodermis.

Root Nodules

Symbiotic bacteria:

Nodules allow nitrogen in but doesn't let oxygen in. Relationship with bacteria for nitrogen fixation

Vegetative (asexual) reproduction










Plant Development

After germination
Upward growth 
-epicotyl or coleoptile 
Downward growth 
-radicle or Hypocotyl 

After germination

Upward growth (light cues)

-epicotyl or coleoptile (leaves)


Downward growth

-radicle or Hypocotyl (roots)

-Gravitropism (growth response to gravity)

*Little rocks that are in the roots that help pull them downward (statoliths)

New elongation starts at the top for plants

Meristematic tissues

-apical meristems 
-lateral meristems
-Three primary meristems 
-protoderm to epidermis 
-ground meristem to parenchyma 
Procambium to xylem, phloem

-apical meristems (tip, top, elongations)

-lateral meristems (Broader, Wider)

-Three primary meristems

-protoderm to epidermis

-ground meristem to parenchyma



Procambium to xylem, phloem

Secondary Growth

Secondary Growth

(adult tissues)

Vascular Cambium 
-xylem inward 
-phloem outward 
Cork cambium 
-annual rings 
-heartwood vs sapwood 
-cork cambium 
Girdling plants

Vascular Cambium

-xylem inward

-phloem outward

Cork cambium




-annual rings

-heartwood (xylem clogged up, hardest part of the wood)

vs sapwood (New xylem where water is still flowing through)


-phloem (handles sap)

-cork cambium



Girdling plants (deadly to a tree, especially in dicots, if someone cuts a ring around the tree, damages the vascular cambium)

Exchange and transport

Plants obtain gases, nutrients, minerals and water via internal fluids

Plants obtain gases, nutrients, minerals and water via internal fluids

Gas exchange

Stomata, root and lenticels (cracks in the trees)

Internal transport

Xylem and phloem

Fluids move in xylem

Adhesion, cohesion, evaporation and osmosis

Theories of up movement

Capillary action- doesn't move too far up

Root pressure

Transpiration pull (cohesion-adhesion-tension)

(this is what happens in a tree)

Fluids move in phloem

Mass flow

Source (leaves) vs sink (fruit)

Life within the soil

Roots and soil

Nitrogen uptake and fixation

-abiotic fixation

-biotic fixation: free-living vs symbiotic

Kingdom Animalia




Lack cell walls

Two major groups



Multicellularity advantages

Large size


Stable internal environment

Relative independence from environment

Sponge Reproduction




Gemmules: Fresh water sponges


Dioecious (either male or female)

Monoecious (hermaphrodite)

Sponge Classification

Class Calcarea: Calcium carbonate spicules

Class Hexactinellida: Glass Sponge (shrimp)

*Class Demospongiae: Most sponges

Class Sclerospongiae: Caribbean and caves

Nervous system

Nerve net

Nerve net


Nematocyst: a specialized cell in the tentacles of a jellyfish or other coelenterate, containing a barbed or venomous coiled thread that can be projected in self-defense or to capture prey.

Spirocyst: a type of nematocyst (stinging cell) limited to the tentacles and oral disc of cnidarians, adhesive

Ptychocyst: a special type of nematocysts found on burrowing (tube) anemones, which help create the tube in which the animal lives, tube construction

Branch Eumetazoa

Grade Radiata

Phylum Cnidaria

General characteristics

Mouth with tentacles

No anus, but has gut


Diploblastic with organs

General morphology

"Polyp" vs "Medusa"

Life cycle

Metagenesis: the alternation of generations between sexual and asexual reproduction.

Cnidarian Classifications

Class Hydrozoa (Nematocysts)

Class Scyphozoa (nematocysts)

Class Anthozoa (Nematocysts, Spirocyst, Ptchocyst)

Class Hydrozoa

Medusoid or polypoid (dominant stage)

"Hydromedusae" small


Gastrozooid: For feeding

Gonozooid (gonangium): For reproduction

Dactylozooid: Nematocysts

Skeletozooid: Help protect the body

Acellular mesoglea- very thin, no cells

Cnidae in epidermis-only

Hydra: polypoid metagenesis doesn't occur, polyp produces gametes

Obelia "a hydroid"

"Hermit crab" hydroid

Dactylozooid lashing



Hydroid colony, modified medusa

"A floating, polymorphic colony"

Fire corals

Not a true coral, actual hydrozoan but looks like a coral, can sting has nematocysts

Class Scyphozoa (normal Jellyfish)

(dominant Stage) Medusoid or polypoid

"Scyphomedusae" large

Cellular mesoglea

Cnidae in epidermis and gastrodermis

Life cycle



Ephyra: single animal juvenile stage

Planula: sea lice

Common "jellyfish"

Cubomedusa "sea wasp"

Major features




Class Anthozoa

Polypoid only

Cellular mesoglea

Cnidae in epidermis and gastrodermis

Septa (mesentaries) in gut



*Can somersault, swim, and crawl

Class Anthozoa Asexual reproduction

Budding, fission



Cleavage patterns

Cell fate

Radial vs spiral

Indeterminate vs determinate

Developmental stages

Developmental stages

Blastula with blastocoel 
Gastrula with blastopore to archenteron (gut) 
Germ layers:
Coelom formation 
Schizocoely (to split) vs entercoely (inside)
Body cavity categories 


Blastula with blastocoel

Gastrula with blastopore to archenteron (gut)

Germ layers:




Coelom formation

Schizocoely (to split) vs entercoely (inside)

Body cavity categories




Fate of blastopore

"Protostomes vs Deuterstomes"


Mouth first, anus second


Anus first, mouth second

Ex: humans lol

Animal diversity

Extinct vs extant

Kingdom Animalia

Branch Parazoa

Branch Eumetazoa


Poorly defined tissues

Phylum Placozoa

The most primitive metazoan

Phylum Porifera


General characteristics


Filter water through canal system

Mostly marine

General morphology of Sponges

3 body plans




Body layers


Porocytes (cells that create pores)

Myocytes (Muscle cells)


Spicules: Made up of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide)

Spongin: (Squishiness or spongy of the sponge)

Amoebocyte: stem cells

Collencytes (may have nerve like functions)


Choanocytes (ability to filter water for food)

Anthozoan Diversity

Sea Anemones


Hermatypic Corals- hard corals

With zooxanthellae

Scleractinians or Hexacorallia- multiples of six

Coral Bleaching

Ahermatypic corals-soft corals

Octocorals or Gorgonians-8

Sea pen

Sea fan

Sea whip

Phylum Ctenophora

Medusa-like, w/o nematocysts (usually)

8 comb rows, with 2 tentacles (usually)

Colloblasts- adhesive similar to spirocysts

Two classes: Tentaculata and Nuda

Cteno-tooth or comb

Branch Eumetazoa


Grade Bilateria


Phylum Platyhelminthes (penis fencing)

General characteristics

Dorso-ventrally flattened



Incomplete digestive system

Protonephridia (flame cells) :First excretory system, kidney

Reproduction Platyhelminthes

For Branch Eumetazoa

Sexual (mostly hermaphroditic)

Hypodermic impregnation




Movement Platyhelminthes

For Branch Eumetazoa

Adhesive glands

Releaser glands

Taxis (light (away from) and current (towards the current)

*movement response

Classification of Platyhelminthes

Class Turbellaria

Class Trematoda

Class Cestoda

Class Turbellaria

Free-living, small, mostly marine

Rhabdites- same things as nematocysts

Class Trematoda

Syncytium-modified body plan


Complex life cycles w/alternating hosts

Primary (definitive host) vs intermediate (vector, fishes, vegetation, snails) hosts

"Chinese liver fluke"

Class Cestoda

Parasitic "Tapeworms"

Lack digestive tracts

Scolex (attachment structures) and Proglottids (repeating segments)

Pork and beef Tapeworms

Adaptations for Parasitism

Adhesive organ

Sense organs reduced

Digestive tract reduced/lost

Body wall protection

Fecundity (reproductive output) increased

Larval stages to facilitate passage from host to another

Phylum Nemertea (-tinea)

(proboscis worm)

"Ribbon" worms

General characteristics

Proboscis- feeding structure


Complete digestive tract (first animal to have one)

Closed circulatory system- no heart

Feeding structures

Proboscis with stylet

Rhynchodeum- opening of the rhynchocoel

Rhynchocoel (proboscis cavity)



Asexual-Fragmentation (still acoelomate)


"Aschelminthes" (sac or bag worm)

Wormlike, parasites (mostly)

Eutely-number of cells is the same in all individuals)

Parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction where the egg isn't fertilized)

Phylum Rotifera


Phylum Nematoda


Abundant, free-living and parasitic forms


Longitudinal muscles and longitudinal whipping

Cloaca- Common opening for 2 or more systems to leave the body one of which is digestive (always)

poop, sperm or egg, and pee out the same hole

Nematode Parasitism

Affecting most groups

Edema: severe swelling

Elephantiasis:refers to a parasitic infection that causes extreme swelling in the arms and legs. The disease is caused by the filarial worm, which is transmitted form human to human via the female mosquito when it takes a blood meal. The parasite grows into an adult worm that lives in the lymphatic system of humans

Trichinella: attacks muscles, heart worm


"Protostomia and Deuterstomia"

Lophophorate animals

"Protostomia or Deuterstomia"

Coelom formation varies

Blastopore fate varies

Ribosomes protostome-like

Lophophore: horseshoe looking feeding structure

Phylum Bryozoa (ectoprocta)

Phylum Brachiopoda

Phylum Phoronida

Phylum Mollusca


General characteristics

Abundant, aquatic and terrestrial forms

Body plan

Soft parts: Mantle (forms the shell), head/foot, visceral mass (houses the internal organs)
Hard parts: Shell,

H.A.M.=Hypothetical Ancestral Mollusk


Excretory system:

Exam question: (Kidney=metanephridia=coelomoduct


Circulatory system: Open vs Closed

Shell: Periostracum, Prismatic layer, Nacreous layer (pearly layer, calcium carbonate)

Reproduction: Trochophore larva, Veliger larva

Classification of Mollusks

Class Monoplacophora

Class Polyplacophora

Class Gastropoda

Class Bivalvia

Class Scaphopoda

Class Cephalopoda

Class Monoplacophora

Thought to be extinct only mollusk to show segmentation

Multiple gills, muscles, nephridia (kidneys) and gonads


Neopilina- Showed segmentations which relates them to annelida and Arthopods

Living fossil: those that which up until a certain point were fossils, thought to be extinct, but living species were found



Phora-to have

“Primitive group with a single, conical-shaped shell”

Class Polyplacophora

Articulated shell- Not segmented


Body segmentations are not based on the shells they are based on soft body tissues

Class Gastropoda

Shell types: Planospiral vs Helicospiral

Operculum and shell aperture

Shell-loss forms: Nudibranch (can undergo torsion but when it realizes it doesn't have a shell can undergo detorsion)(can make it's own chlorophyll)

Torsion and visceral mass


Uses the nematocysts from eating Cnidarians

Class Bivalvia

Shell: Umbo, Hinge ligament (oldest part of the shell)

Adductor Muscles (helps close the shell)

Protractor vs Retractor

Mantle cavity

Siphon: incurrent vs excurrent

Digestive system

Bivalve Diversity

Oysters and Pearl formation

Scallop: eye spots

Giant Clam: Uses zooxanthellae- provides food for them, they can't fully close, and they don't make food for themselves and live in shallow water

Shipworm: boar into the wood, has a shell on its head.

Freshwater clam

Glochidia Larvae

*Uses the foot to move

Class Scaphopoda

"Tusk Shells" (down in the mud)

Burrowing (hole in the top of the shell to have water flow in and out for respiration

Class Cephalopoda


"Squid (largest invertebrate, open swimmers, active swimmers, 10 tentacles) and Octopods (lives on the bottom, 8 tentacles)"

Shell absent, reduced or spiraled

Tentacles/arms with suckers

Siphon- For propulsion


Eyes well developed

Closed circulation

Beak (with poison?)

Ink gland

Chromatophores: Visual cells, to match color

Other cephalopods


Chambered Nautilus: Plain spiral

Siphuncle: absorbs and releases gas to keep neutral buoyancy

Where is the Stomata normally located?

Primarily can be found on the bottom of the leaf

Which one of the four cell types is most active metabolically when fully functional?

Companion cells


Development of an egg without fertilization


Where one part is cut off (lizard tail) and can grow back.

Plants can grow stems (roots) back

Which fixation is least helpful for plants?

Abiotic fixation

Zoa means?

Meta means?

Zoa- Animals

Meta- Multi-celled

Taxonomic Names:



Invertebrates: are not a true taxonomic name

Vertebrates: True taxonomic name

50,000 extant species

Coral Reefs

Ecosystem, most diverse and most productive in the world

Counter shading with fish

Fish who don't live on the reef



Circulatory System

Open=very slow, snails

Closed=very fast, cephalopod, octopus

Pearl formation

When something comes in contact with the nacreous layer of the mollusk then calcium carbonate forms around it.

Isn't really hard and can break easily

Plano (flat) spiral

“These shells are coiled to form in a single plane, so that the coils can be seen from the side, but ifturned 90 degrees, the coils are not obvious.”

Helico spiral

“These shells are coiled to form a cone shaped, spiraled shell”


First to evolve a nervous system

Circulatory System for Mollusks

“Most molluskshave limited blood vessels. Thus, the

blood interfacesdirectly with the tissues – this defines

the Hemocoel

Shells for Mollusks

Periostracum: “leathery,protein layer on the outside of “some” shells”

Prismatic layer: “Perpendicularlayer of calcium carbonate”

Nacreous layer: “Horizontallayer of calcium carbonate”

“All three layers above areproduced by the mantle”

Reproduction Of Mollusks

Trochophore larva


Trochophore larva
“Characteristic larval form found in many Mollusks, and in many other protostomes such as Annelids (this latter group will be discussed in Unit 4)

Veliger larva

“In many mollusks, the trochophore larva will transition into a veliger larva”
Monoplacophora Neopilina

This speciesrepresents a group that links mollusks with the annelids. Specifically, most extant mollusks are unsegmented, while annelids areobviously segmented. How then are mollusks and annelids closely related. Discovery of this “living fossil” (meaning ithas changed little since the earliest fossil forms) shows that some mollusksare/were segmented, as this species has segmented gills, muscles, nephridia andgonads”

Gastropoda: Operculum

“Chitinous lid or cover for when the snail pulls itself back in the shell, this covers fits in the shellopening or Aperture perfectly"


Torsion &Visceral Mass
“Most snails will undergo a 180
degree twisting during embryonic development to bring their shell forward for easier balance and movement (sort of like shifting a heavy bookbag higher up to keep yourself from falling backwards). Nudibranchs will also undergo torsion, but apparently because there is no shells will twist back to where they started. This return to the original position is called Detorsion


Shell: Umbo

“First,thus oldest, part of the shell


Hinge Ligament

“These musclesforce the shell to close. For “real” scallops, this is what we eat”


Protractor muscles

“These musclespush the foot forward. Blood fills up thetip of the foot”


Retractor muscles

“These musclescontract and pull the clam towards the expanded foot, thus enabling the animal to move forward”


Mantle cavity:

“This cavity is where water enters and exits via specialmodified mantle tissue called “Incurrent & Excurrent Siphons

Bivalvia Digestive system:

“Most of thevisceral mass is composed of digestive organs. For those who clams/oysters, bon appetit”

Bivalve Diversity: =Pelycypoda
- Oysters& Pearl Formation:

“Many oysters(and some other bivalves) will surround and cover foreign materials (such as parasites) withshell material. Specifically, the mantlewill produce abnormal nacreous shell to surround an object with calciumcarbonate. Pearl farms intentionallyplace an object under the nacreous layer for the bivalve to surround it withthe intention of producing the pearl gemstone”

Scallop: Eye spots:

“Most scallops have distinct, multiple eyes on the edge of the mantle allowing them to see pretty well. When they see an object, they are likely tocontract and relax their adductor muscles rapidly, which allows them to swimaway from the potential danger”

Giant clam

“These clams do not feed, but rather have zooxanthellaepacked into the edge of the mantle tissue. These dinoflagellates produce food for theseclams, which necessarily are found in shallow ocean waters to allow sunlightfor the symbiont to engage in photosynthesis.”


“These wormlikeclams, using chemical secretions, feed on wood. Piers/pilings, wooden ships (at one the predominant materialused for boat construction), etc., are susceptible to these animals. Naturally they consume driftwood and otherwoody structures that either live or find their way into oceans.”

Cephalopods: Siphon
“Usedto propel the animal quickly through the water column”
Cephalopods: “Intelligence”
“Oneof the more intelligent of all types of animals”

Eyes well developed

“Visionis an important component of their lives”
Cephalopods: Closed circulation

“Whereas mostmollusks have open circulatory systems,cephalopods have closed systems – likely because they havehigher metabolic needs based on the active, swimming lifestyle. Open systems are not very efficient, but workwell for more lethargic mollusks (snails, clams, etc.)”

Cephalopods: Beak (w/poison?)
“Blue-ringedoctopus is one of the deadliest animals on Earth
Cephalopods: Ink gland

“These animalscan eject a cloud of ink, which confuses/distracts predators increasing the chances of survival for thecephalopod.”

Cephalopods: Cuttlefish

“Squid-likeanimal that has an internal shell commonly called the

cuttlebone - although it is not actually bone”

Cephalopods: Chambered Nautilus

“Squid-likeanimal that lives in a planospiral shell, which is partitioned internally into gas-filled chambers used forbuoyancy. They are found in deep, dark, cold oceanic waters”

Cephalopods: Siphuncle

“Thin tube of tissue that travels into each chamber of the Nautilus

shell;responsible for producing gases used in maintaining neutral buoyancy