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36 Cards in this Set

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who was responsible for infected mice experiment with non-virulent and virulent bacteria?

Fred Griffith

what two strains allowed mouse to live?

R strain and heat killed S strain

what two strains killed mice?

s strain and heat killed s + r because r were transformed to s

Avery, MacLeod, McCarty

purified DNA from pathogenic strain transformed a harmless pneumococci strand

explain steps in AMM experiment

remove lipids and carbs so proteins, rna, and dna are left




add enzymes. see what gets destroyed




add to r cells, see if transformation occurred and s cells are left

hershey and chase

found that 32p DNA was injected into e. coli cells

who came up with base pairing rules?

Erwin Chargaff A=T, C=G

what bonds form between bases AT, CG

hydrogen bonds

what did DNA model demonstrate?

how DNA is copied and proteins coded for

what comprises a nucleotide?

phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar, and one of four ATCG nitrogenous bases

what are two purines?

AG

what are two pyridimines?

TC

how fast can DNA be replicated?

1000 nucleotides per second

what breaks weak hydrogen bonds prior to replication?

helicase

name of openings in DNA

origins of replication

name for two original DNA strands prior to replication

template or parental

2 newly synthesized strands are called

daughter

what do the two new helices contain? and what is that referred to as?

a template and a daughter strand.


semi-conservative

how do the strands run?

anti-parallel

how does the prime strand run

3' 5'

what direction does DNA polymerase add nucleotides in

5' 3'

where does dna polymerase work in a reverse fashion?

the "anti-sense" strand

what does the lagging strand make? and what are they called?

Okasaki fragments and they are put together by DNA ligase

name for multiple replication origins found along the molecule


replication bubbles

dna polymerase makes an error 1 in blank and is reduced to 1 in after proofreading

10,000 base pairs reduced to 10 million after proofreading

name for direction of proofreading by dna polymerase

3 to 5 proofreading

what are different types of mutations

nucleotide insertion, deletion, substitution.


pieces of chroms broken, exchanged, or lost

R in REL DNA Repair acronym

resynthesis- DNA polymerase fills hole with new DNA where damaged DNA was removed

E in REL

Excision – damage is spliced out by nucleases (3' 5' proofreading)

L in REL

•Ligation – DNA ligase seals the nick in the phosphate-sugar backbone

functions of two active sites in DNA repair

1 that polymerizes and one that edits

prob with okasaki fragment

RNA primer cannot sit down on the End of a piece of DNA–So the last Okazaki fragment cannot be synthesized.

what are the implication of the prob with Okasaki fragment?

DNA can't replicate to the end and chromosomes get shorter each time

junk DNA at the end is called

telomere

name of special enzyme that allows DNA synthesis to the end?

telomerase

2 types of cells with telomerase

cancer and stem cells