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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

base pair

two complementary nucleotides in an RNA or a DNA molecule that are held together by hydrogen bonds - foe example, G with C, and A with T or U

cell cycle

the orderly sequence of events by which a cell duplicates its contents and divides into two


specialized DNA sequence that allows duplicated chromosomes to be separated during M phase; can be seen as the constricted region of a mitotic chromosome


complex of DNA and proteins that makes up the chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell

chromatin-remodeling complex

enzyme (typically multisubunit) that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to alter the arrangements of nucleosomes in eukaryotic chromosomes, changing the accessibility of the underlying DNA to other proteins, including those involved in transcription


long, threadlike structure composed of DNA and proteins that carried the genetic information of an organism; becomes visible as a distinct entity when a plant or animal cell prepares to divide


describes two molecular surfaces that fit together closely and form noncovalent bonds with each other. Examples include complementary base pairs, such as A with T, and the two complementary strands of a DNA molecult

deoxyribonucleic acid

double-stranded polynucleotide foemd from two separate chains of covalently linked deoxyribonucleotide units. It served as the cell's store of genetic information that is transmitted from generation to generation

double helix

the typical structure of a DNA molecule in which the two complementary polynucleotide strands are wound around each other with base pairing between the strands


one of the two main states in which chromatin exists within an interphase cell. Prevalent in gene-rich areas, its less compact structure allows access for proteins involves in transcription


unit of heredity containing the instructions that dictate the characteristics or phenotype of an organism; in molecular terms, a segment of DNA that directs the production of a protein or functional RNA molecult

gene expression

the process by which a gene makes a product that is useful to the cell or organism by directing the synthesis of a protein or an RNA molecule with a characteristic activity

genetic code

set of rules by which the information contained in the nucleotide sequence of a gene and its corresponding RNA molecule is translated into the amino acid sequence in a protein


the total genetic information carried by all the chromosomes of a cell or organism


highly condenses region of an interphase chromosome; generally gene-poor and transcriptionally inactive


one of a group of abundant highly-conserved proteins around which DNA wraps to form nucleosomes, structures that represent the most fundamental level of chromatin packing


an ordered display of the full set of chromosomes of a cell arranged with respect to size, shape, and number


large structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is transcribed and ribosomal subunits are assembled


beadlike structural unit of a eukaryotic chromosome composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins; includes a nucleosomal core particle (DNA plus histone protein) along with a segment of linker DNA that ties the core particles together

replication origin

nucleotide sequence at which FNA replication is initiated

telomere gene

repetitive nucleotide sequence that caps the ends of linear chromosomes. Counteracts the tendency of that chromosome otherwise to shorten with each round of replication


enzyme that elongates telomeres, synthesizing the repetitive nucleotide sequences found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes