• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What 2 domains are made up of prokaryotic cells?



Are prokaryotic organisms single or multi cellular?


When were the first prokaryotes on earth?

3.5 billion years ago

What structures are present in prokaryotic cells?








Cell wall

Plasma membrane

Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Eukaryotic cells are 10x larger, more complex, contain organelles

Define organelle

Membrane enclosed structure with a special function within eukaryotic cells

What types of organisms have eukaryotic cells?





Composition and structure of the plasma membrane

Composed of mostly phospholipids and proteins.

The phospholipids are in two layers called a phospholipid bilayer

Why is the plasma membrane called a "fluid mosaic"?

Molecules can move freely past one of the diversity of proteins that float like icebergs in the phospholipid sea.

Role of membrane proteins?

-Some help regulate passage of materials into and out of the cell.

-Others aid in communication between neighboring cells, facilitate enzymatic reactions, or help anchor the cell or its components.

-Some of these proteins are fixed in place, while others float within the phospholipid bilayer.

What is cytoplasm?

-Everything inside a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.

-Consists of a semifluid medium and organelles.

-Can also refer to interior of a prokaryotic cell.

What is Cytosol?

The fluid part of the cytoplasm

Passive transport?

-Moves across a membrane from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration.

-No energy requirement

Active transport?

-Moving of substance against concentration gradient from lower concentration to higher concentration

-requires energy

-driven by a protein within the membrane


Spontaneous movement of particles of any kind down a concentration gradient from higher concentration to lower concentration.


Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

Facilitated diffusion?

Passage of a substance across a biological membrane down it's concentration gradient aided by specific transport proteins

Describe how active transport works

Movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient aided by specific transport proteins and requiring the input of energy (often ATP)


Movement of materials from the external environment into the cytoplasm of a cell via vesicles or vacuoles


Movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell membrane via vesicles or vacuoles


-atom's central core

-contains protons and neutrons

-genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell


-The combination of DNA and proteins that constitutes chromosomes


-Within the nucleus

-DNA from multiple chromosomes directs production of rRNA

-rRNA subunits exit through pores into cytoplasm where they join protein molecules to form a ribosome

Nuclear envelope?

-A double membrane

-perforated w/pores

Enclosed and separates nucleus in a eukaryotic cell

Nuclear pores?

-Protein lined opening in nuclear envelope

-Materials can pass between nucleus and cytoplasm


-Consists of RNA and protein

-2 subunits functioning as the site of protein synthesis in cytoplasm

-subunits constructed in nucleolus

Rough endoplasmic reticulum?

-network of interconnected membranous sacs in cytoplasm

-rough ER membranes are studded w/ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins

-constructs membrane from phospholipids and proteins

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

-Interconnected membranous tubules in cytoplasm

-lacks ribosomes

-Enzymes in Smooth ER function in synthesis of certain molecules such as lipids


-organelle in eukaryotic cells

-Consists of stacks of membranous sacs

-modify, store, and ship products of the ER


-digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells

-contains enzymes that digest the cell's food and waste

Transport vesicle?

Small bubbles of membrane that carry products of the cell to the plasma membrane for export


-membrane enclosed sac

-part of the endomembrane system of a eukaryotic cell

-diverse functions


-organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists

-enclosed by 2 concentric membranes

-absorbs sunlight and uses it to make sugars


-Organelle in eukaryotic cells

-where cell respiration occurs

-enclosed by 2 concentric membranes

-where most ATP is made


-short appendage


-Long appendage

-a cell may have 1 or more

Cell wall?

-Protective layer

-in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists

-protects cell

-maintains shape of cell


-Meshwork of fine fibers in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cell

-Includes: Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments, microtubules

Extra cellular matrix?

-Meshwork that surrounds animal cells

-web of protein and polysaccharide fibers embedded in a liquid, jelly, or solid

What is Photosynthesis?

-Transform light energy to chemical energy stored in bonds of sugars

-requires input of CO² & H²O and produces O²

Cellular respiration?

-Aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules

-involves glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis.

What is "work"?

Movement of an object against opposing force through expenditure of energy.


Capacity to cause change or move matter in a direction it wouldn't move if left alone

Kinetic energy?

-Energy of motion

-transfers its motion to other matter such as: leg muscles pushing bicycle pedals

Potential energy?

-Stored energy

-energy an object has due to its location and/or arrangement

-water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy

Conversion of energy principle

Energy can't be created or destroyed but transforms from one form to another

What type of energy is heat?

Kinetic energy

What is entropy?

Amount of disorder or randomness in a system

How does entropy relate to energy conversions?

Every time energy is converted, the entropy (randomness) increases.

What is chemical energy?

A form of potential energy

Where is chemical energy found?

Stored in the chemical bonds of molecules

What is a producer?

-Organism that makes food

How do organisms in the ecosystem depend on the sun for energy?

-Some capture energy through photosynthesis

-some eat these organisms

-all organisms use cellular respiration to burn energy

-As energy is converted, heat is given off

-heat exits the ecosystem

-heat flows thru ecosystems; enters as light, exits as heat

Purpose of photosynthesis?

Producers capture sunlight and converts it to chemical energy.

Where does photosynthesis take place?

In chloroplasts in plant and algae cells

What is a consumer?

Organism that obtains food by eating plants or animals

Where does cellular respiration take place?

In mitochondria

How are photosynthesis and respiration related?

-The products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration.

-they are reciprocal of each other.

What is the equation of photosynthesis?


Stacks of thylakoids


Individual disks


Fluid within the membrane

What are stomata?

Tiny pores in the leaf

What is the function of stomata?

Allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to exit

What is the main pigment of photosynthesis?


What color light does chlorophyll reflect?


What are the two stages of photosynthesis?

The light reactions

The Calvin cycle

What happens during the light reactions?

Capture energy in sunlight and use it to produce high energy molecules

What happens during the Calvin cycle?

Uses the high-energy molecules to produce sugar

What is the electromagnetic spectrum?

Visible light.

Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet wavelengths.

Which part of the spectrum contains high energy wavelengths?

The violet end

Which part of the spectrum contains low energy wavelengths?

The red end

Which part of the spectrum contains short wavelengths?

The violet end

Which part of the spectrum contains long wavelengths?

The red end

Which portion of the spectrum do green plants use?

Red and blue

What is the purpose of accessory pigments?

Assist chlorophyll in using other portions of the spectrum

What impact does photosynthesis have on the atmosphere?

Produces oxygen and removes carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas responsible for climate change

Why do we eat and breathe?

These processes provide the ingredients required to power cellular respiration

Define calorie

The amount of chemical energy stored in food.

Define kilocalorie

Kcal thousands of calories

How do we measure energy in food?

Measure of energy burned by your body as it performs activity

How many kcal per gram do we get from fats?

1 gram = 9 calories

How many kcal per gram do we get from carbs?

1 gram = 4 calories

How many kcal per gram do we get from protein?

1 gram = 4 calories.

How are kcals burned off?


How is the energy stored in food related to ATP?

Acts like an energy shuttle transferring chemical energy from bodily processes that provide energy(eating food) to ones that use energy (moving muscles)

What is the structure of ATP and how is it used?

3 phosphate groups linked together. The 3rd phosphate contains potential energy

Describe the ATP cycle

ATP from ADP plus a 3rd phosphate

Removing a phosphate group re forms ADP

& releases energy used for cellular work.

The 3 steps of cellular respiration?


Citric acid cycle

Electron transport chain

How many ATP are produced in glycolysis?


How many ATP are produced in the citric acid cycle?


How many ATP are produced in the electron transport chain?


Where does glycolysis occur?

In the cytoplasm

Where does the citric acid cycle occur?

The fluid within mitochondria

Where does the electron transport chain occur?

Within the inner membrane of the mitochondria

How are cellular respiration and breathing related?

The carbon dioxide you breathe out comes from the reactions of cellular respiration and the oxygen needed for cellular respiration you breathe in.

Trace the path of oxygen from the air to the cells and back

Air, nose/mouth, lungs, blood, cells, mitochondria

What is the equation for cellular respiration?

What process occurs when there is a lack of sufficient oxygen?

Lactic acid fermentation or alcohol fermentation

Describe the lactic acid fermentation. what is produced?

Glucose and other six carbon sugars are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate.

Describe alcohol fermentation. What is produced?

Pyruvate is converted to ethanol

Yeast in brewing, winemaking, and baking.

What type of organisms undergo lactic acid fermentation?

Humans and bacteria

What type of organisms undergo alcohol fermentation?


What is the basic pathway involved in fermentation?

Energy harvested from sugar without oxygen

What is metabolism?

The total of all chemical reactions in your body

How does metabolism relate to kCals and weight?

Chemical reactions in your body require energy in the form of ATP. The energy we get from food is what we are breaking down through cellular respiration to produce ATP. If you take in more calories than you burn you store it as fat. If you burn off more than you take in you break down fat to power your cells.

What other types of fuel can cellular respiration burn?

Sugars, Fats other type of carbs and proteins