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45 Cards in this Set

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Plasma Membrane
The selectively permeable surface membrane that encloses the cell contents and through which all materials entering or leaving must pass.
Amphipathic Molecules
A molecule containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
Fluid Mosaic Model
The currently accepted model of the plasma membrane and other cell membranes in which protein molecules "float" in a fluid phospholipid bilayer.
Integral Membrane Proteins
A protein that is tightly associated with the lipid bilayer of a biological membrane.
Transmembrane Proteins
An integral protein that spans across the lipid bilayer.
Peripheral Membrane Proteins
A protein associated with one of the surfaces of a biological membrane.
A protein with covalently attached carbohydrates.
Selectively Permeable Membrane
A membrane that allows some substances to cross it more easily than others.
Carrier Protein
Proteins that changes in shape to bind to ions or molecules to move that molecule across the membrane.
Carrier Mediated Transport
Any form of transport across a membrane-bound transport protein with a binding site for a specific substance.
Channel Proteins
Proteins that form tunnels through the cell membrane.
Transmembrane proteins that allow various solutions or water to pass through membranes.
Transmembrane proteins that function as gated water channels.
The net movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Concentration Gradient
A difference in the concentration of a substance from one point to another.
Dynamic Equilibrium
The condition of a chemical reaction when the rate of change in one direction is exactly the same as the rate of change in the opposite direction.
The net movement of water by diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Osmotic Pressure
The pressure that must be exerted on the hypertonic side of a selectively permeable membrane to prevent diffusion of water from the side containing pure water.
A solution that has identical concentrations of solute and the same osmotic pressure.
A solution with an osmotic pressure greater than that of the solution it is being compared to.
A solution with an osmotic pressure lower than that of the solution being compared.
Turgor Pressure
Hydrostatic pressure that develops within a walled cell when the osmotic pressure of the cell's contents is greater than the osmotic pressure of the surrounding fluid.
The shrinkage of cytoplasm and pulling away of the plasma membrane from the cell wall when a walled cell loses water.
Facilitated Diffusion
The passive transport of ions or molecules by a specific carrier protein in a membrane.
Artificial vesicles surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer.
Active Transport
Transport of a substance across a membrane that does not rely on the potential energy of a concentration gradient for the substance being transported; therefore requires an additional source of energy.
Sodium-Potassium Pump
Active transport system that transports sodium ions out of and potassium ions into cells.
Carrier proteins that transport a substance in one direction.
Carrier proteins that move two types of substances in one direction.
Carrier proteins that move two substances in opposite directions.
Cotransport System
The active transport of a substance from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration by coupling its transport to the transport of a substance down its concentration gradient.
The active transport of materials in and out of the cell by fusion of cytoplasmic vesicles with the plasma membrane.
The active transport of substances into the cell by formation of invaginated regions of the plasma membrane that pinch off and become cytoplasmic vesicles.
"cell eating"; a type of endocytosis by which certain cells engulf food particles, microorganisms, foreign matter, or other cells.
"cell drinking"; a type of endocytosis by which cells engulf and absorb droplets of liquids.
A molecule that binds to a specific site in a receptor or other protein.
Buttonlike plaques present on two opposing surfaces that hold cells together by means of protein filaments that span the intercellular space.
Cytoplasmic channels connecting adjacent plant cells and allowing for movement of molecules and ions between cells.
A narrow cylindrical structure in a plasmodesmata that runs through a channel and connects the smooth ER of two adjacent cells.
Indirect Active Transport
Type of transport in which two solutes are transported at the same time.
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Specific receptors in coated pits along the plasma membrane bind ligands.
Anchoring junctions
They are found between cells that form a sheet of tissue; include desmosomes and adhering junctions.
Adhering Junctions
Junctions that are formed by cadherins that cement cells together.
Tight Junctions
Seal membranes of adjacent animal cells together preventing substances from moving through the spaces between cells.
Gap Junction
Form channels that allow communication between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.