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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Scientific Method

1. Observation

2. Question


3. Hypothesis


4. Prediction


5. Experimentation


6. Data Analysis


7. Conclusion

Scientific Theory

Provides an explanation of the natural worldBased on testable hypotheses


Supported by reproducible observations

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by normal chemical reactions

Elements of Life

Organisms are comprised of 96% C, O, H, and N

Essential Elements

25 Elements are required for human life17 Elements are required for plant life

Atomic Number

Number of protons

Atomic Mass

Number of protons and neutrons

Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)

mass of 1 proton or neutron

Isotope

Element with the same number of protons

Radioactive Tracers

Radioactive tracer (bright blue)added to cell/virus culture. Traceris labeled with 3H.




Human cells are incubated atvarious temperatures.




Cells from each incubator are placedin tubes; the newly synthesized DNAis isolated; and unused tracers areremoved.




The test tubes are placed in a scintillation counter and data is collected. Thecounter will determine how much 3H is present, which indicates how much DNAwas synthesized. The more DNA synthesized, the more viral growth.




more 3H was incorporated into the DNA at 36°C. Body temp is the optimum temperature

Ionic Bonds

cation and anion interact and electron is "donated"




bonds are strong

Covalent Bonds (single and double)

atoms share valence electrons


bonds are strong

Hydrogen Bonds

Formed when a hydrogen atom with partial positive chargeis attracted to an atom with a partial negative charge


weak bonds

Van derWaals

based on fluctuating electric charges


weak bonds

Polar Covalent Bonds

electrons are shared unequally\


bonds are strong

Water Polarity

Partial negative charge: oxygen


partial positive charge: hydrogen

Phases of Water

Gas: spread apart


Solid: close together


Liquid: Lattice structure

Cohesion

hydrogen bonds between water molecules

Adhesion

hydrogen bonds between water molecules and other substances

Emulsifier

contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions

Acids

proton donors


dissociate in solution to yield H+ and an anion


<7

Bases

proton acceptors

dissociate in solution to yield OH- and a cation


>7

Eukaryotes

Have a membrane bound nucleus and multi-cellular organism

Prokryotes

no nucleus and unicellular

Negative Control

tests the standard. No change

Positive Control

anticipated change. tests for change

Essential Elements

25 elements for human life


17 for plant life

carbon

backbone for all organic molecules

hydrogen and oxygen

components of water

nitrogen

component of proteins and nucleic acids

atoms

smallest unit of an element

Atomic number

number of protons

atomic mass

sum of protons and neutrons


mass of a single electron 1/2000 amu

isotope

elements with the same number of protons, but different neutrons

radioactive isotopes

label biological specimen for research and diagnostics (medical imaging)


nucleus decays spontaneously

stable isotopes

nucleus does not decay spontaneously

electron clouds

approximation of electron location

valence electrons

outer electron shell

periodic table

rows gain electron shell


column gains valence electron

solvent

dissolves a substance

solute

dissolved substance

aqueous

dissolving a hydrophillic substance

buffers

resist change in pH of a solution when acids and bases are added

theory of vitalism

organic material can only be produced from living organisms

organic molecules

defined by carbon backbone wiwth covalent bonds

carbon backbone

forms bonds with atoms

properties of carbon

always forms 4 bonds


can bind to more types of atoms than other elements

functional group

atoms that alter the chemical properties of organic molecules

hydroxyl


carboxyl


methyl



sulfhydryl



carboxylic acid



amino

genome

2 meters of DNA arranged into chromosomes


23 pairs of chromosomes

central dogma

replication -> transcription-> translation


DNA-> RNA-> Protein

nucleus

membrane bound organelle that stores DNA

nuclear envelope

protective double membrane

nuclear pores

allows communication with cytoplasm

chromatin

DNA and protein


relaxed stage of gene expression

chromasomes

DNA condensed for cell division

Purines

two ringed structure

adenine and guanine



pyrimidine

one ringed structure containing nitrogen

cytosine and thymine or uracil



Phosphodiester Bond

bonds dna and rna

DNA

double helix


anti parallel


3.4nm


3' to 5'



mismatch repair

replaces a simple nucleotide error

excision repair

replaces a stretch of nucleotides

telomeres

non-coding repetitive DNA sequences that shorten with every replication


telomerase creates telomeres

G2 of Interphase

nuclear envelope still intact (92 chromosomes)


centrosomes with centriole pairs


nucleolus


plasma membrane

Prophase

early mitotic spindle


centromere


two sister chromatids of one chromosome

Pro-Metaphase

nucleear envelope broken down


kinetichore


kinetichore microtubules


chromosomes more condemsed



Metaphase

chromosome at one spindle pole


spindle


metaphase plate

anaphase

daughter chromosomes


move toward poles

cytokinesis

actin microfillaments and myosin contract


cleave into two individual cells


contractile ring of actin and myosin cause the cleavage to break

RNA transcription

initiation


promoter


transportation


elongation

amino acid

non polar

hydrophobic


amino acids folded into the middle of the final protein structure

polar

hydrophillic


amino acids get folded onto outside of the final protein structure

silent mutation

wobble effect, if mutation is in third position

missence

amino acid is changed

frame shift mutation

a letter is deleted or added and the remaining sequence is changed

Translation

initiation


elongation


termination

triacyglyceride (fat)

energy storage


ester linkage

phospholipids

two fatty acid tails and a phosphate group


ampipathic





steroids

four ringed carbon backbone


structural and chemical signaling


cholesterol is the precurssor

Protein Synthesis

nuclear envelope


er


golgi apparatues


transport vesicle


the cell membrane

intercellular junctions

attach two adjacent cells


desmosomes: elestic


adhering junctions: cemented

tight junctions

seals off body cavities (intestines, blood brain barrier)

gap junctions

tunnel between two cells