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7 Cards in this Set

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What two things are symptoms of infectious disease caused by?


In the fastest increase of bacteria growth, how often does it multiply by?


Why do wounds on cuts occur?


How does white blood cells react to diseases?


Why do we get so many colds?

Symptoms: Damage to cells when microbes reproduce. Toxins made by microbes.


Multiplies by 20 minutes.


Wounds: Because extra blood with white blood cells are being carried there. One of the cells engulfs and digests infectious bacteria.


White blood cells: They produce antibodies which shape themselves to the antigen markers of said microbe, to trap them so that white blood cell and engulf and digest it. Once antibody made, stored in white blood cells as memory cells which stay in blood.


Colds: They're caused by more than 200 viruses and they have high mutation rate so antigen markers could change.

What is a vaccine?


What is herd immunity?


Why is it a bad idea to take antibiotics for a viral infection?


Why is it so important to finish course of antibiotics even if feeling well?

Vaccine: Dead or inactive forms of said microbe. Injected to trigger white blood cells into making antibodies.


Herd immunity: idea that at least 95+% have to be vaccinated to reduce risk of epidemics.


Antibiotics are for BACTERIAL infections. Kills bacteria and leaves resistant bacteria to multiply.


Important to finish because bacteria that survive will be left to divide and produce more resistant bacteria.

How are medicines tested?


What is meant by a control group?

Testing of medicines: Firstly on human cells to see how it works and effectiveness. Secondly on animals to see if it works. Then in clinical trials on healthy patients for safety and affected patients for effectiveness.


Control group: Group who are given the old treatment (or placebo) Other group given new treatment.

Properties of the heart?


Outline steps heart circulates around body


Role of arteries?


Role of veins?


Role of capillaries?

Heart: Has 4 chambers, two up (receives blood) two down (pumps blood)


Circulation: Heart enters RIGHT hand side via VEINS. Pumps to lungs to be oxygenated. Flows back to left lower chamber. Pumped to rest of body to oxygenate via arteries.


Arteries: Take blood from heart to body. Thick outer walls withstand high pressure of heart pump


Veins: Blood back to heart. Thin layer allows squashing which pushes blood. Valves.


Capillaries: Take blood to and from tissues. Very thin (1 cell). Allows oxygen and food to diffuse to cells and waste from cells.

How is a heart attack caused?


How are blood pressure measurements made?



Heart attack: Blood brings oxygen and food to cells. Cells use these raw materials for supply of energy. W/o energy, heart would stop so needs supply of energy. Fat builds up in coronary artery, clot can form on fatty lump. Blocks artery = some heart muscle starved of oxygen = cells die.


Blood pressure: Record pressure of blood on walls of artery. Top no is contracting (always higher), bottom no is relaxing. Systolic/Diastolic.

What is homeostasis?


What 3 things do all control systems have?


How are premature babies' temperatures regulated?

Homeostasis: Keeps conditions inside body balanced.


Control systems have: Receptors which detect stimuli. Processing centre which receives info and coordinates response. Effector which provides automatic response.


Premature babies are kept in incubators with temp sensors with automatic switch. Called -ve feedback.

Job of kidneys?


What does concentration of blood plasma determine?


Why can concentration be higher than normal?


Where is ADH released?


Effects of alcohol on ADH?


Effects on ecstasy on ADH?

Kidneys: Excretion and water homeostasis. Excretion is getting rid of toxins from cell reactions. Linked as water flushes it out. Controls amount of water levels by changing level of urine you make. Hot day? lose water via sweat, kidneys make smaller amount of urine w/ same level waste making it more conc.


Concentration of blood plasma: Determines how much water kidneys reabsorb and how much is excreted in urine.


Can be higher than normal b/c: excess sweating. not drinking enough. too much salty food.


ADH is released from pituitary gland in brain. How much is dependent on blood plasma conc. Too high? ADH released Too low? No ADH released. ADH travels from blood to kidneys (effectors) ADH affects amount of water reabsorbed back to blood. More ADH = more water reabsorbed.


Alcohol: SUPPRESSES ADH, so causes greater volume of dilute urine to be produced, causing dehydration and incr. heart rate.


Ecstasy: INCREASES ADH production, so lower volume of conc. urine produced. Affects body temp control. Overheating may cause someone to drink too much water leading to seizures. Can incr. risk of heart attack from incr. blood pressure.