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80 Cards in this Set

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What happens within the ribosomes?

Protein synthesis using amino acids
What happens in the mitochondria?
Respiration to release energy
What is the function of a cell membrane?
Controls the movement of substances in and out of a cell
What happens in the cytoplasm?
Chemical reactions, controlled by enzymes
What is in the nucleus?
What is the function of the nucleus?
Genetic information
Controls all activity in the cell
What is the purpose of a cell wall?
Strengthen the cell
What is the function of a chloroplast?
Contain chlorophyll which absorbs light for photosynthesis
What is in a permanent vacuole?
What is its purpose?
Cell sap
Keep the cell turgid (enlarged with water)
How is a red blood cell specialised?
No nucleus to provide more space
Packed full of haemoglobin to absorb oxygen
Thin outer membrane to let diffusion of oxygen happen easily
Shape increases surface area
How is an ovum specialised?
Large cell to carry food reserves for the embryo
How is a white blood cell specialised?
Has the ability to change shape so it can destroy or engulf a pathogen successfully
What are the features of a bacterial cell?
Single bacterium
No nucleus
Cytoplasm
Cell membrane
Cell wall 
Flagellum
Single bacterium
No nucleus
Cytoplasm
Cell membrane
Cell wall
Flagellum
What are the features of a yeast cell?
Single-celled fungus
Nucleus
Cytoplasm 
Cell membrane
Cell wall 
Vacuole
Single-celled fungus
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Cell membrane
Cell wall
Vacuole
What substances do cells have to constantly replace?
What substance do cells have to constantly remove?
Oxygen and glucose for respiration
Carbon dioxide
What can pass in and out of cells through diffusion?
Gases
Substances in a solution
What is diffusion?
Spreading of the particles of a gas or substance in a solution
Net movement from an area of higher concentration to a region with a lower concentration
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion
To create a multicellular organism, what must happen?
The cells must differentiate to carry out different functions
If you differentiate a cell, what does it become?
A specialised cell that have a similar structure and function
What is a tissue?
A group of specialised cells
What does muscular tissue enable?
How does the tissue work in the stomach?
Movement due to contraction
Contract to churn contents
What is the purpose of glandular tissue?
How does this tissue work in the stomach?
To produce substances such as enzymes and hormones
Produces digestive enzymes and acid
What is the purpose of epithelial tissue?
How does this tissue work in the stomach?
Covers some parts of the body such as organs
Lines the outside and inside of the stomach
How do the following organs contribute to the digestive system?
Pancreas and salivary gland
Stomach
Small intestine
Liver
Large intestines
Produce digestive juices
Digests food
Digest and absorb soluble food
Produces bile to break down fats
Absorbs water form undigested food, producing faeces
What is the purpose of epidermal tissue?
To cover the plant
What is the purpose of mesophyll tissue?
Carries out photosynthesis
What is the purpose of both xylem and phloem tissue?
Transport substances around the plant
Give examples of plant organs
Roots
Stem
Leaves
How is a leaf adapted to absorbing sunlight?
Chlorophyll?
Large surface area?
Thin?
Absorb sunlight
Absorb more sunlight
Easier for carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf cells
What 3 factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Temperature
Carbon Dioxide concentration
Light Intensity
At what temperature are the enzymes that control photosynthesis destroyed?
45 degrees
What are the function of guard cells?
Control the opening and closing of stomata
Found in pairs
Located in the leaves
How is a root hair cell specialised?
Tiny hair extensions to increase surface area so that the plant can absorb more water
How is a xylem cell specialised?
Long, hollow cells to transport water through the stem
Where does diffusion occur?
Lungs
Small intestine
Name 3 examples of plant organs
Stem
Leaves
Roots
What 4 things are needed for photosynthesis?
Water
Light
Chlorophyll
Carbon dioxide
How do plants use glucose?
Name 4 things
Changed into insoluble starch, stored in roots, leaves or stem
Respiration to provide energy
Produce cellulose to strengthen cell wall
Produce proteins, uses nitrate ions from soil
What are proteins?
Molecules made from long chains of amino acids which are folded into a specific 3D shape
What 4 things do proteins act as?
Structural components for tissue
Hormones
Antibodies
Catalysts
What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts made from proteins
What do catalysts do?
Increase the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy
What is specific to the enzyme that is vital for its function?
Shape
Why is it dangerous for humans to have a temperature?
High temperatures denature the shape of the active site within the enzyme so that they no longer work
What temperature do enzymes work best in?
37 degrees
How do digestive enzymes work?
Released from cells
They come into contact with food molecules
Catalyse breakdown of large food molecules to smaller ones
They turn insoluble substances into soluble substances so they can be absorbed in the bloodstream
What are the 3 digestive enzymes?
Protease
Lipase
Amylase
Where is amylase produced?
Salivary glands
Pancreas
Small intestine
What does amylase digest?
Starch
What does amylase produce?
Where is this product produced?
Sugars
Mouth and small intestine
Where is protease produced?
Stomach
Pancreas
Small intestine
What does protease digest?
Proteins
What does protease produce?
Where is this product produced?
Amino acids
Stomach and small intestine
Where is lipase produced?
Pancreas
Small intestine
What does lipase digest?
Lipids (fats and oils)
What does lipase produce?
Where are these products produced?
Fatty acids and glycerol
Small intestine
What is the function of mesophyll?
Tissue used to carry out photosynthesis
What is the function of epidermal tissue?
Cover outside of the plant
What is the function of xylem?
Transport water
What is the function of phloem
Transport nutrients
What 3 things affect photosynthesis?
Light intensity
Carbon dioxide levels
Temperature
Which two enzymes are in biological detergents and why?
Lipase- Break down oil and grease stains
Protease-Break down blood and food stains
Where is bile produced?
In the liver
Where is bile stored?
Gall bladder
Where is bile realised into?
Small intestine
What is the function of bile?
Why is this important?
It neutralises the acid that is added to food in the stomach
This means alkaline conditions are present which enzymes in the small intestines work best in
Which enzyme is used in baby food and why?
Protease because it pre-digests protein
Which enzyme is used to convert starch into sugar syrup?
Amylase/Carbohydrase
Which enzyme is used to convert glucose into fructose?
Isomerase
Why are enzymes used in industry?
To bring about reactions at normal temperatures and pressures which would otherwise need more energy which raises costs
Where does aerobic respiration take place?
Mitochondria in the cytoplasm of cells
What is the aerobic respiration word equation?
Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
What is the energy released during respiration used for?
Name 4 things
Build larger molecules
Allow muscles to contract
Maintain steady body temperature
Build up amino acids from sugars, nitrates and nutrients
During exercise, what changes does your body go through?
Heart rate increases
Rate and depth of breathing increases
Arteries supplying blood to muscles dilate
Bloodflow to muscles increase
Supply of oxygen and sugar, removal of carbon dioxide increases
What do muscles store glucose as?
Glycogen
What is the anaerobic respiration word equation?
Glucose = Energy + Lactic acid
Which releases more energy, anaerobic respiration or aerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration releases less energy because the breakdown of glucose is incomplete
What is oxygen debt?
It's the oxygen that's needed to oxidise lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water
What happens when muscles carry out vigorous activity for a long time?
They become fatigued, they stop contracting efficiently and hurt
How is lactic acid removed from the muscles?
By blood flowing through the muscles