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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hearing Loss
The invisible condition
Aural rehabilitation
-intervention aimed at minimizing and alleviating the communications difficulties associated with hearing loss
-often involved assistive devices
-for persons who have not developed listening, speech and language skills
Audiologic Rehabilitation
used interchangably with aural rehab., may entail greater emphasis on the provision and follow-up of listening devides and less emphasis on communication strategies and auditory speech reading
Conversational Fluency
related to how smoothly conversation unfolds
Hearing-related disability
loss of function imposed by hearing loss
structural or functional impairment of the auditory system
consists of the psychosocial disadvantages that result from a functional impairment.
*Use of this term is discouraged by WHO
Activity Restriction
change at the level of the person brought about by an impairment at the levels of body structure
Participation Restriction
effect of an activity limitation that results in a change in the broader scope of a patient's life
Frequent Communication Partner
persons with whom another often converses (e.g. family member, coworker)
Psychosocial factors
and individual's feelings, self-image, motivation
Social factors
prevailing viewpoints of one's society
Pure-tone Average
-average of hearing thresholds at 500, 1000, and 2000
the extent of the hearing loss at each frequency and gives an overall description of the hearing loss
Hard of hearing
having a hearing loss, but usually does not refer to a profound hearing loss
usually means having minimal or no hearing
hearing loss acquired prior to acquisition of spoken language
present at birth
implies hearing loss was started after birth
during language aquisiton
language has been acquired
conductive loss
results from an obstruction within the outer or middle ear and prevents sound from reaching the sensorineural structures in the inner ear
congenitally small external ear
closure of the external auditory canal
ear wax
Otitis Media
inflammation of the middle ear, often accompanied by accumulation of fluid in the middle ear cavity
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
-hearing loss that has a cochlear or retrocochlear origin
-typically permanent
-causes: otoxotic drugs, meningitis
common cause of childhood sensorineural hearing loss caused by bacterial or viral inflammation of the meninges (the membranous linings of the brain and spinal cord)
inflammation of the brain
Mixed Hearing Loss
hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural
Progressive Hearing Loss
hearing loss that occurs over time
Sudden Hearing Loss
acute or rapid onset
program under the SSA that reimburses hospitals and physicians for medical care they provide to qualified people who are 65 years or older
reimburses hospitals and physicians for providing health care to qualified people who cannot otherwise afford services
5-Step (EBP) for clinicians to follow
1. Ask straight forward question
2. Find the best evidence to answer your question
3. Critically asses the evidence - does it apply to your patient?
4. Integrate evidence with clinical judgment and patient values
5. Evaluate performance after enacting plan
Speech Recognition/Perception
The ability to perceive a spoken message and make decisions about its lexical composition using auditory and sometimes visual information
Speech Recognition Testing
-determines how well a person can recognize speech units
-more than an audiogram, shows how a person may be affected by their hearing loss
Degrees of Hearing Loss
NORMAL: 25dBHL or bettter
MILD: 26-40 dBHL
SEVERE: 71-90 dBHL
Speech Reception Threshold
the lowest presentation level for spondee words at which 50% can be identified correctly
two-syllable words spoken with equal stress on each syllable
Speech Discrimination Score
(not used)
the percentage of monosyllabic words presented at a comfortable listening level that can be correctly repeated
Most Comfortable Loudness (MCL)
-The level at which sound is most comfortable for the listener
-determined by listening to running speech
Uncomfortable Loudness Level (ULL)
the level at which sound becomes uncomfortably loud for the listener
Dynamic Range
the difference in decibels between a person's threshold for just being able to detect speech and the person's threshold for uncomfortable listening
Sound Field Testing
determines hearing sensitivity or speech recognition ability by presenting signals in a sound field through a loudspeaker
Why do SRT?
-determine the need for amplification
-compare performance (w/o) hearing device
-show value of visual speech info
-examine environment related issues
-assess performance longitudinally (over time)
-determine need for speechreading
-determine placement within a training curriculum
-evaluate placement in ed. setting
-determine if goals are being met
Communication mode
the means used by a sender to share information with a receiver and may include using speech, sign, writing, hand gestures
Information Transmission Analysis
statistical procedure that analyzes the transmission of speech features by scoring confusions between test stimuli that are grouped based upon the presence or absence of those features
Multidimensional scaling
statistical procedure whereby data points are represented in a geometric space
cluster analysis
statistical approach to information in a database that aims to determine which data points fall into groups or clusters
Optimal Test Environment
Sound-treated booth
Patient variables
(such as cognitive/linguistic skill) influence the selection of test materials
Two major trends of hearing aid design
1. miniaturization
2. enhanced signal processing
Multiple memories
the patient can adjust the hearing aid for different situations
Noise Reduction
the difference in the sound pressure level (SPL) of a noise measured at two different locations
Acoustic Feedback Cancellation
reduces the squeal that occurs when the microphone picks up amplified sound from the hearing aid and reamplifies it
Hearing Aid Components
1. microphone (audio signal to electronic signal)
2. amplifier (increases the intensity of the sound)
3. battery (cell that provides electrical power)
the difference in decibels between the input level of an acoustic signal and the output level
3 stages of amplification devices
1. preamplifer (signal from mic is amplified)
2. signal-processing stage (signal is manipulated to enhance or extract component information)
3. output (the process signal is boosted)
Maximum Power Output
maximum intensity level that a hearing aid can produce
method of limiting hearing aid output in which a constant or linear amount of gain is provided across a range of input levels until it reaches a saturation level, at which time the amplifier begins to "clip" off the peaks of the signal
Functions of Compression
1. limit the max output of hearing aid
2. provide a range of sounds within the dynamic range
3. provide varying amount of gain of speech signal function
point at which compression is activated
Compression Ratio
The decibel ratio of acoustic input to amplifier output
attack time
time between when a signal begins to the onset of its steady-state amplified value
release time
amount of time it takes for the amplifier to return to it's steady state after a loud sound ends
Hearing Aid benefit
1. benefit
2. satisfaction
3. use time
4. residual activity limitations
5. residual participation restrictions
6. impact on others
7. quality of life
Hearing Aid Orientation
-description of function of each part for hearing
-patient practice
-review of maintenance
-patient practice: phone
-review of expectations
-set use pattern
-printed information
-set followup date
Tonotopic Organization
structures within the peripheral and central auditiory nervous system are arranged topographically
Cochlear Implant
-The implant consists of an external portion that sits behind the ear and a second portion that is surgically placed under the skin
-provide sensation by directly stimulating the nerve
Candidates for CI
-severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss
-good general health
Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs)
Primarily address face-to-face communication
-FM Systems
-Induction Loop