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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What are the two principles of flight and their definition?

Bernoulli's principle-area of increased speed and decreased pressure.

Newton's third law-every action has an equal and opposite reaction. W

What is the primary source of lift?

Pressure differential around an airfoil.

What is relative wind

The direction of the airflow produced by an object moving through the air.

What are the three principle/primary airfoils that produce lift on an aircraft?

Wing, horizontal tail surfaces, propeller.

What is a chord line?

An imaginary straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge.

What is the angle of attack?

The acute angle formed between the chord line of an airfoil and the relative wind.

What is camber?

The curvature of the airfoil from the leading edge to the trailing edge.

What is wing platform?

The shape or form of a wing as viewed from above.

What is lift?

Upward force created by an airfoil when it is moved through the air.

What are the three key properties of the atmosphere that affect air density and aircraft performance.

Temperature. Altitude. Water vapor (humidity)

What is the temperature change as altitude increases?

Temp decreases by 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit every 1,000 feet until about 7 miles above earth at -67 degrees

What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level

14.7 psi or 29.92 inches of mercury

What effect does higher elevation have on performance of an airplane?

Length of runway for takeoff needs to be increased.

Climb of aircraft will decrease.

Length of.

Length of runway for landing roll needs to be increased.

Amount of power from the engine will decrease.

What are the three types of propellers.

Adjustable pitch

Fixed pitch

Controllable pitch

What are the three axes of rotation? What is rotation about the axes called and what control surfaces cause this?

Vertical axis-yaw-Rudder

Longitudinal axis-roll-Aileron

Lateral axis-pitch-elevator

What is an elevator

Hinged surface normally located on the rear of the horizontal stabilizer.

What are trim tabs?

Small, adjustable, hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of the primary control surfaces.

What does the throttle, cyclic, and collective control?

Throttle controls RPM

Cyclic controls tilt to move forward and back.

Collective controls pitch to move up and down.

What is autorotation

The state of flight where the main rotor system is being turned by the action of relative wind

When does a stall occur?

When the airfoil reaches a critical angle of attack which is about 15-20 degrees.

What are the three primary causes of stalls?

Insufficient airspeed.

Excessively violent flights maneuvers.

Severe wind shear

What are three primary types of icing?

Structural icing-changes the shape of the airfoil.

Pitot tube icing-airspeed indicator becomes unreliable.

Carburetor icing-reduces the fuel/airflow to the engine. (Can occur between 20 – 70°F.

What is wake turbulence?

Phenomenon resulting from the passage of an aircraft through the atmosphere.

What are vortices?

Circular patterns of air created by the movement of an airfoil through the air when generating lift.

The strength of the vortex depends on what three factors?

Weight, shape of the wing, speed.

When is the greatest vortex generated?

Heavy, clean, slow.

When are vortices generated and when do they end?

Vortices are generated at the moment the aircraft generates lift and end at touchdown.

What is the sink rate of vortices and how low do they sink?

Vortices sink at 300 to 500 ft./m and end 500 to 1000 feet below the flight path.

What is the speed that vortices move along the ground?

2 to 3 knots.

What effect do crosswinds have on vortices moving along the ground?

Decrease or stall the movement of one vortex while increasing the movement of the other.

What is induced roll?

Mechanical force a wake vortex has on an aircraft causing it to spin on its longitudinal axis.

At what distance should you avoid operating an aircraft near a helicopter?

Three rotor diameters

What is jet blast?

Jet engine exhaust

What are the characteristics of a category one aircraft?

12,500 pounds or less, single engine, propeller driven.

What are the characteristics of a category two aircraft?

12,500 pounds or less, twin engine, propeller driven.

What are the characteristics of a category three aircraft?

Any other aircraft that does not fall into category one or two.

What are the category one general performance characteristics of an airplane?

Speed: 100-160 knots

Altitude: 10,000 feet and below

Climb rate: 1000 ft./m or less

Weight class: small

What are the category 2 general performance characteristics of an aircraft?

Speed: 160 Dash 250 knots

Altitude: FL240 and below

Climb rate: 1000-2000 ft/min

Weight class: small

What are the category three general performance characteristics of an aircraft?

Speed: 300–550 knots

Altitude: FL450 and below

Climb Rate: 2000 – 4000 ft./m

Weight: specified for each aircraft

What is the helicopters general performance characteristics?

Speed: 90–160 knots

Altitude: FL200 and below

Climb rate: 500–2,150 ft./m

Weight class: small – large

What are the weight class definitions?

Small – aircraft less than 41,000 pounds.

Large – aircraft more than 41,000 pounds up to but not including 300,000 pounds.

Heavy – aircraft over 300,000 pounds

What are the three types of aircraft engines?

Recirprocating, turboprop, turbojet.

What are the three types of wing placement?

High wing, mid wing, low wing.

What are the three types of wing configuration?

Straight wing configuration, swept wing configuration, Delta wing configuration.

What are the five basic tail configurations?

Conventional tail, forward slant vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer above fuselage, T tail, V tail.

What are the five types of windows on airplanes?

Oval, round, teardrop, square, bubble canopy.

What is controlled airspace?

Airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and VFR flights.

What is class A airspace vertical dimensions?

From 18,000 MSL up to and including FL600.

What is class B airspace and what is required to operate in it?

From the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports.

Require ATC clearance to enter.

Two – way radio communication must be established, mode C transponder, VOR or TACAN navigation.

What is class C airspace and what does it require to operate in it?

From the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation surrounding airports with a control tower. A circle of a 10 NM radius that extends no lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet.

Need two – way radio communication, mode C transponder.

What is class D airspace and what is required to operate in it

From the surface to 2500 feet above airport elevation surrounding airports without a control tower.

Two – way radio communication.

What is class E airspace?

Extends upward from 1200 feet AGL to but not including 18000 feet MSL.

What is class G airspace?

Class G airspace normally extends from the surface upwards to the base of the overlying controlled airspace.

What is the special use airspace

Aerospace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the earth wherein activities must be confined because of their nature.

What are the seven types of special use aerospace?

Prohibited area. Restricted area. Warning area. Alert area. Controlled firing area. Military operations area. National security area.

What is prohibited area?

Prohibited areas are of interest of national security and welfare.

What is Restricted area?

Airspace above U. S. Land areas or territorial waters. Necessary to confine or segregate activities considered hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft.

What is a warning area?

Aerospace of defined dimensions extending from 3NM outward from the coast of the United States

What is an alert area

Areas that contain a high volume of pilot training operations or unusual type of aeronautical activity

What is a controlled the firing area

Controlled firing areas provide a means to accommodate activities that can be immediately suspended if a nonparticipating aircraft approaches the area.

What is military operations area

Area of military flight activities such as air combat maneuvers, air intercepts, low altitude tactics.

What is national security area

Area that has national assets or to protect an area of interest of national security

Code of Federal regulations apply to who

Applies to all aircraft operating in the United States

What is an air traffic clearance

Authorization by air traffic control for the purpose of preventing collision between known aircraft and foreign aircraft to proceed underspecified conditions.

Who has a final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight?

Pilot in command.

What is a flight plan?

Specified information relating to the intended flight of the aircraft.

What is positive control

Control of all air traffic within designated airspace by air traffic control

What are the conditions to operate an aircraft in the formation?

Can not have passengers for hire and had to have made arrangements prior to flight