• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

554 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

physical evidence

materials used for a statue or painting may not have been invented before a certain time, indicating the earliest possible date someone could have fashioned the work.


the dating of art objects and buildings

terminus post quem

point after which

terminus ante quem

point before which

documentary evidence

helps pinpoint the date of an object or building when written records or documents mention the work

internal evidence

Depiction of person, hairstyle, clothing, or furniture can set a timeline to identify date of art

stylistic evidence

an analysis of style is an artists distinctive manner of producing an object. Less reliable for chronological criterion

period style

characteristic artistic manner of a specific era or span of years, usually within a distinct culture

regional style

term historians use to describe variations in style tied to geography, like an objects date, it's provenance, or place of origin, can significantly determine it's character


an artist's distinctive manner of producing an object

personal style

distinctive manner of individual artist's or architects, often decisively explains stylistic discrepancies among monuments of the same place and time


artwork itself and all the materials it is composed of


content or subject of an artwork and study of content in art, includes symbols


images that stand for other images or encapsulate ideas


abstract ideas codified in human form


shared chronology, style, and geography


those who paid artists to make individual works or employed them on a consisting basis


objects shape and structure, two and three dimensional


how artist composes/organizes forms in a piece, concerned with arrangement in space


medium and tools artists choose to use to compose piece


processes artist's employ, personal ways they handle materials


the path of a point moving in space , an invisible line of sight


flat surface

contour line

continuous line that defines an objects outer shape


revealed by light

additive light


subtractive light

light reflected from pigments and objects


property giving a color its name


the quality of a surface, rough or shiny


bounded or boundless container of objects


important pictorial device to organizing shapes in space


relationship between the parts or persons, buildings, or objects

subtractive sculpting techniques

sculpting that includes carving or subtraction of a material in the creation of a piece

additive sculpting techniques

include techniques that require adding a substance to a cast to create a piece

relief sculpture

statues and busts that exist independent of any architectural frame or setting and that viewers can walk around

architectural drawings

includes plan, elevation, and cutaway drawings, essentially graphical representations of mass and space

different ways of seeing

varying perspectives and interpretations of art depending on style, materials, themes, context, and culture


old stone age, art went beyond recognition to incorporate representation of natural environment/elements

Chauvet cave

home to the world's supposedly oldest cave painting in France, depicts horses, rhinos, and aurochs, painted over time, shows great care and technique

Altamira Cave

in northern Spain, depiction of bison discovered

Lascaux Cave

house of giant hall of bulls, depiction of many different animals, also found first supposed depiction of man, used many different techniques that seemed painstaking


new stone age, development of stone implements allowed for new techniques/art forms


agricultural settlement, 7000 BCE plateau of Jordan river, wealth increased interesting new art forms human skull masks, tools, and stone tower, evolution of artistic architecture

Ain Ghazal

second important neolithic settlement, in ancient Palestine, plaster houses, rich paints/pigments, beginning of monumental sculptures

Catal Hoyuk

Anatolian plain, home to hunting paintings, and volcanic eruption landscape, both required beautiful depiction involving craft and skill and imitation of surroundings


a large, roughly hewn stone used in the construction of monumental prehistoric structures


Stone monolith in England, supposed spiritual/healing significance, implies post and lintel structure, circular pattern

passage grave

a prehistoric tomb with a long stone corridor leading to a burial chamber covered by a great tumulus


in etruscan architecture, tumuli cover one or more subterranean multichambered tombs cut out of the local tufa (limestone)

Profile view

side view of a subject

frontal view

front view of a subject

composite image

a convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally; also called twist perspective

sculpture in the round

freestanding figure in 3D

radiocarbon dating

a method of measuring the decay rate of carbon isotopes in organic matter to determine the age of organic materials such as wood and fiber

neolithic wall painting

coherent narratives became common , artists began to represent human figures

human with a feline head, from Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany, 30,000-28,000 BCE, made of mammoth ivory

Nude women, Venus of Willendorf, Willendorf Austria, 28,000-25,000 BCE limestone

woman holding a bison horn, Laussel, France 25,000-20,000 BCE limestone

two bisons, reliefs in the cave at Le Tuc d'Audoubert, France 15,000-10,000 BCE clay

bison licking its flank, La Madeleine, France 12,000 BCE reindeer horn

bison detail of a painted ceiling in the cave at Altamira, Spain 13,000-11,000 BCE

aurochs, horses, and rhinos, wall painting in the Chauvet Cave, Vallon Pont-d'Arc, France 30,000-28,000 BCE or 15,000-13,000 BCE

Rhino, wounded man, and disemboweled bison, painting in the well of the cave at Lascaux, France 16,000-14,000 BCE

stone tower built into the settlement wall, Jericho 8,000-7,000 BCE

human figure, Ain Ghazal, Jordan 6750-6250 BCE plaster

landscape with volcanic eruption, detail of a watercolor copy of a wall painting from level VII, Catal Hoyuk , Turkey 6150 BCE

aerial view of Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England 2550-1600 BCE


cradle of civilization, where humans first used the wheel, established city-states, invented writing, used pictures to tell coherent stories


great eastern river that defined the boundaries and fueled the fertility of Mesopotamia


the western of the two great rivers surrounding Mesopotamia


First inhabitants living in the fertile crescent, converting it, group of independent city-states, culture that first invented writing


loosely linked group of cities known as Sumer united under great ruler, Sargon of Akkad, near Babylon


strong independent city-state that gained political power, ruled under Hammurabi the most powerful and influential king, used centralized government


huge power ruled over tigris to the nile at height of power, came to power during first half of first millennium, not very secure rule


Captured Babylon in the sixth century, gave birth to Achaemenid Empire


in ancient mesopotamian architecture, a monumental platform for a temple

votive offering

a gift of gratitude to a deity

conceptual representation

the representation of the fundamental distinguishing properties of a person or object, not the way a figure or object appears in space and light at a specific moment


a carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events

cylinder seals

a cylindrical piece of stone usually about an inch or so in height, decorated with an incised design, so that a raised pattern is left when the seal is rolled over soft clay, used to id important possessions through sign


Assyrian guardian in the form of a man-headed winged bull


the great audience hall in ancient Persian palaces


the Sumerian goddess of love and war, most important female deity in all periods of Mesopotamian history, sanctuary to self at Uruk, many reliefs and statues in her worship

Naram- Sin

Sargon of Akkad's grandson, strong warrior type leader has Stele dedicated to victory


hunting reliefs and sculptures dedicated to great Assyrian king, use of personification through enemies depicted as wild animals


powerful ruler of akkad, very religious and wealthy, had many expensive statues depicted in honor of Ensi of Lagash


most powerful ruler of Babylon, known for his acute laws and conquests


city of the fourth millennium with a population of 40,000, home to iconic White Temple


Sumerian city that was home to the biblical Abraham and the Standard of Ur, which is one of the earliest extant works incorporating all pictorial conventions

Dur Sharrukin

citadel of Sargon II, home to huge Lamassu and other mural paintings and architectural and sculptural pieces worshiping the gods and rulers


most important source of knowledge regarding Persian art and architecture in ceremonial and administrative complex on the citadel

White Temple and Ziggurat, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, 3200-3000 BCE

restored view of the White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk, Iraq, 3200-3000 BCE

Warka Vase, Presentation of offerings to Inanna, from Uruk, Iraq, 3200-3000 BCE, alabaster

Eshnunna Statuettes, statuettes of two worships, from Square Temple at Eshnunna, Iraq, Gypsum, shell, and black limestone

Stele of the Vultures, Battle scene, fragment of the victory stele of Eannatum from Girsu, Iraq, limestone

Akkadian Portraiture, Head of an Akkadian ruler, from Nineveh, Iraq, 2250-2200 BCE, Copper

Akkadian Portraiture, Victory stele of Naram-sin, from Susa, Iran, 2254-2218 BCE pink sandstone

Ziggurat at Ur, Iraq, 2100 BCE

Gudea standing, holding an overflowing water jar, from the temple of Geshtinanna, Girsu, Iraq, 2100 BCE, calcite

Stele with the laws of Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran 1780 BCE, basalt

Lamassu (man-headed winged bull), from citadel of Saragon II, Dur Sharrukin, Iraq, 720-705 BCE, limestone

citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin 720-705 BCE

Assyrian archers pursuing enemies, relief from the northwest palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Kalhu, Iraq, 875-860 BCE, gypsum

Ashurbanipal hunting lions, relief from the north palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh, Iraq, 645-640 BCE, gypsum

Ishtar Gate, Babylon, Iraq, 575 BCE, glazed bricks

Aerial view of Persepolis, Iran 521-465 BCE

Persians and Medes, detail of processional frieze on the east side of the terrace of the apadana of the palace, Persepolis, Iran, 521-465 BCE limestone


backbone of Egypt, annual floods supported all life, defined cultures, originated in Africa, worlds longest river

Lower Egypt

the northernmost region of Egypt, fertile nile delta

Upper Egypt

land between both sides of the nile and extends to Nubia

Old Kingdom

statuary types expressing the eternal nature of pharaonic kingship, construction of the Great pyramids at Gizeh

Middle Kingdom

rock-cut tombs became the preferred Egyptian burial sites

New Kingdom

construction of grandiose pylon temples, Akhenaton introduces a new religion and new art forms


sequence of rulers from the same family


a thin board with a thumb hole at one end on which an artist lays and mixes colors; any surface so used; also colors or kinds of colors characteristically used by an artist, In ancient Egypt, a slate slab used for preparation of makeup

stepped pyramid

predynastic and early dynastic new unique Egyptian design of pyramids


a quadrilateral masonry mass having smooth, steeply sloping sides meeting at an apex, used as a tomb


to make a dead body into a mummy through embalming and drying


a figure of an imaginary creature having the head of a man or an animal and thebody of a lion


in ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force

bilateral symmetry

having the same forms on either side of a central axis

nemes crown

in ancient Egypt the linen headdress worn by the pharaoh with the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front


the wide entrance gateway of an Egyptian temple, characterized by its sloping walls


a horizontal beam used to span an opening


the fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts, oldest known are in Egypt


an ancient Egyptian king


a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies ofmanuscripts before the invention of printing


an ancient Egyptian rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft


predynastic king, ornate and beautiful Palette in his honor


Egyptian king of the third dynasty (2630-2611 BCE), huge stepped pyramid in his honor


artist of stepped pyramid in honor of Djoser, legendary talent, pharaoh's official seal bearer and high priest


One of the great pyramids of Gizeh is in honor of this great pharaoh of the old kingdom (2551-2528 BCE)


One of the great pyramids of Gizeh is in honor of this great pharaoh of the old kingdom (2520-2494 BCE)


One of the great pyramids of Gizeh is in honor of this great pharaoh of the old kingdom (2490-2472 BCE)


fifth dynasty official displayed as a central figure in a hunting expedition, tomb is a major site of artwork

Senusret III

successor of Mentuhotep II, fought four brutal military campaigns in Nubia, fragmentary relief in his honor


queen who became a regent ruler for the boy king, first great female monarch, commissioned numerous building projects, mortuary temple had great significance

Ramses II

Great Pharaoh who has a huge stone cut temple in his honor at Abu Simbel


great pharaoh of the New Kingdom who is depicted in ornate mural painting


crazy pharaoh who radically changed empire worship to deify the sun disk, erased all past elements in empire of other gods and artwork, depicted in statue much more realistically


sculptor, represented his work authentically


Akhenaton's queen, most beautiful woman in land as depicted by her bust,unfinished and irregularly shaped


most famous Egyptian boy king, didn't do much in short reign, massive tomb with very in tact mummy and possessions, many art masterpieces


Pharaoh (690-664 BCE) constructed temple at Kawa and had beautiful portrait of himself placed inside, sculpture of sphinx most known piece


a solar deity, regarded as either the son or the brother of Isis and Osiris, and usuallyrepresented as a falcon or as a man with the head of a falcon


a god in whom Amen and Ra were combined: the god of the universe and thesupreme Egyptian god during the period of Theban political supremacy


a solar deity declared by Amenhotep IV to be the only god, represented as a solardisk with rays ending in human hands

Palette of Narmer, Hierakonpolis Egypt, predynastic, 300-2920 BCE, slate

Imhotep, stepped pyramid of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Third Dynasty, 2630-2611 BCE

Restored view of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Third dynasty, 2630-2611 BCE

Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, fourth dynasty

model of the pyramid complex, Gizeh, Egypt

Khfre enthroned, Gizeh, Egypt, fourth dynasty, 2520-2494 BCE

Menkaure and Khamerernebty, Gizeh, Egypt, fourth dynasty 2490-2472 BCE

Seated scribe, Saqqara, Egypt, fourth dynasty, 2500 BCE, painted limestone

Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, 2450-2350 BCE, painted limestone

Fragmentary head of Senurset III, 12th dynasty, 1860 BCE, red quartzite

Mortuary temple of Hatshesput, Deir el Bahri, Egypt, 18th dynasty 1473-1458 BCE

Facade of the Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, 19th Dynasty, 1290-1224 BCE, sandstone

Aerial View of the temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, begun in 15th cent BCE

Hypostyle hall of the temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, 19th dynasty, 1290-1224 BCE

Model of the hypostyle hall, temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, 19th dynasty, 1290-1224 BCE

Nebamun hunting fowl, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, 18th dynasty 1400-1350 BCE, fresco-secco

funerary banquet, form the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, 18th dynasty, 1400-1350 BCE, fresco-secco

Akhenaton, from the temple of Aton, Karnak, Egypt, 18th dynasty, 1353-1335 BCE, sandstone

Thutmose, Nefertiti, from Amarna, Egypt, 18th dynasty, 1353-1335 BCE, painted limestone

Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Amarna, Egypt, 18th dynasty, 1353-1335 BCE, limestone

Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen, form his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, 18th dynasty, 1323 BCE, gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones

Death mask of Tutankhamen, from the innermost coffin in his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, 18th dynasty, 1323 BCE, gold with inlay of semiprecious stones

Painted chest, from the tomb of Tutankhamen, Thebes, Egypt, 18th dynasty 1333-1323 BCE, wood

Taharqo as a sphinx, from the temple T, Kawa, Sudan, 25th dynasty 680 BCE, granite


elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Turkey

Cycladic Islands

Greek Islands in the Aegean


Island home to King Minos, legendary for his labyrinth and Minotaur, island is also home to some unique and beautiful artifacts

Asia Minor

a peninsula in W Asia between the Black and Mediterranean seas, including most ofAsiatic Turkey

Cycladic culture

early sculptors of this period created marble figurines for mortuary tribute

Minoan Culture

construct major palaces on Crete and adorn the walls with frescoes focusing on palace rituals and nature

Mycenaean Culture

bury their dead in deep shaft graves with ornate funerary masks and gold daggers/cups, erect fortification walls around their citadels featuring corbeled domes, oldest monumental structures known

Linear A

an ancient system of writing, not yet deciphered, inscribed on clay tablets, pottery, andother objects found at Minoan sites on Crete and other Greek islands

Linear B

an ancient system of writing representing a very early form of Greek, deciphered byMichael Ventris chiefly from clay tablets found at Knossos on Crete and at Pylos

Old Palace

first period of Minoan art up until 1600 BCE destroyed by great fire

New Palace

second/late period of Minoan art, regarded as golden age of Crete, era when first great western civilization emerged

mural paintings

frescos found by Greek archaeologists discovered at excavations at Akrotiri on volcanic island of Thera

eruption of Thera

contributes to the excellent conditions of the Theran paintings burying Thera in pumice and ash for preservation


a fortress that commands a city and is used in the control of the inhabitants and indefense during attack or siege


the large reception hall and throne room in a Mycenaean Palace, fronted by an open, two-columned porch

Corbel arch

an arch formed by the piling of stone blocks in horizontal courses, cantilevered inward until the two walls meet in an arch

corbel vault

a vault formed by the piling of stone blocks in horizontal courses, cantilevered inward until the two walls meet in an arch

Lion Gate

the largest sculpture in prehistoric Aegean, outer gateway of the stronghold of Mycenae

Tholos tomb

burial chamber, in Mycenaean architecture, a beehive-shaped tomb with a circular plan

funerary mask

used repoussé technique to fashion masks of gold to carry dead to afterlife, single sheet metal features pushed out from behind

Niello Technique

black metal alloy inlaid in gold cups and daggers

Thera (Akrotiri)

Cycladic islands in which many famous frescos were found


largest Cretan palace, legendary home of King Minos, place on Crete


citadel 10 miles away from Mycenae, known for its great walls


citadel of Peloponnesus, Greek mainland, home to Agamemnon

Figurine of a woman, from Syros (Cyclades), Greece, 2600-2300 BCE, Marble

Male Harp player, from Keros (Cyclades), Greece, 2600-2300 BCE, marble

Aerial view of the palace at Knossos (Crete), Greece, 1700-1370 BCE

Plan of palace of Knossos (Crete), Greece, 1700-1370 BCE

Minoan Woman or Goddess (La Parisienne) from the palace, Knossos (Crete), Greece, 1400-1370 BCE

Bull-leaping, from palace of Knossos, (crete), Greece, 1400-1370 BCE

Landscape with swallows (Spring fresco), from room Delta 2, Akrotiri, Thera (cyclades), Greece, 1650-1625 BCE

Marine style octopus flask, from Palaikastro (Crete), Greece, 1450 BCE

Snake Goddess, from the palace Knossos, Greece, 1600 BCE

Harvesters Vase, from Hagia Triada (Crete), Greece, 1500-1450 BCE

Aerial view of the citadel, Tiryns, Greece, 1400-1200 BCE

Plan of the palace and southern part of the citadel, Tiryns, Greece, 1400-1200 BCE

Megaron, Palace of Nestor, Pylos, 1300 BCE

Lion gate, Mycenae, Greece, 1300-1250 BCE, limestone

Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, 1300-1250 BCE

Interior of the Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, 1300-1250 BCE

Funerary mask, form Grave Circle A, Mycenae, Greece, 1600-1500 BCE, beaten gold

Inlaid dagger blade with lion hunt form Grave Circle A, Mycenae, Greece, 1600-1500 BCE, bronze with inlaid silver, gold, and niello

Two goddesses and a child, from Mycenae, Greece, 1400-1200 BCE, Ivory

Warrior Vase, from Mycenae, Greece, 1200 BCE,


resembling or employing the simple rectilinear or curvilinear lines or figures used in geometry


the early phase of Archaic Greek art (seventh century BCE), so named because of the adoption of forms and motifs from the ancient Near East and Egypt


the artistic style of 600-480 BCE in Greece, characterized in part by the use of the composite view for painted and relief figures and of Egyptian stances for statues.


the art and culture of ancient Greece between 480-323 BCE. Lowercase classical refers to more generally the Greco-Roman art and culture


The term given to the art and culture of the roughly three centuries between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE and the death of Queen Cleopatra in 30 BCE, when Egypt became a Roman province


Greek, young man, an archaic Greek statue of a young man


Greek, young woman, an Archaic Greek statue of a young woman


an ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water


an ancient Greek two-handled jar used for general storage purposes, usually to hold wine and oil


a flask containing perfumed oil; lekythoi were often placed in Greek graves as offerings to the deceased


Characterized by capitals with funnel-shaped echinuses, columns without bases, and a frieze of triglyphs and metopes


characterized by volutes, capitals, columns with bases, and an uninterrupted frieze


a more ornate form of ionic or doric; it consists of a double row of acanthus leaves from which tendrils and flowers grow, wrapped around a bell-shaped echinus. Although this capital form is often cited as the distinguishing feature of the corinthian order, no such order exists, in strict terms, but only this type of capital used in the Ionic order


in ancient Greek architecture, the molded projecting lowest part of Ionic and Corinthian columns


the tall cylindrical part of a column between the capital and the base


vertical channeling, roughly semicircular in cross-section and used principally on columns and pilasters


the uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel, form varies in order in classical architecture


the part of the entablature between the architave and the cornice; also any sculptured or painted band in a building


the square panel between the triglyphs in a Doric frieze, often sculpted in relief


a triple projecting, grooved member of a Doric frieze that alternates with metopes


in classical architecture, the triangular space at the end of a building, formed by the ends of the sloping roof above the colonnade; also, an ornamental feature having shape


the uppermost course of the platform of a classical Greek temple, which supports columns


the chamber at the center of an ancient temple; in a classical temple, the room (Greek naos), in which the cult statue usually stood


in classical architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porches. a peripteral colonnade consists of a single row of columns on all sides; a dipteral colonnade has a double row all around


greek dancing place, in ancient Greek theaters, the circular piece of earth with a hard and level surface on which the performance took place


the stage of a classical theater


in ancient Greek architecture, an open building with a roof supported by a row of columns parallel to the back wall


an independent city state in ancient Greece

black figure style

in ancient Greek pottery, the silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear details incised through the silhouettes

red figure style

in later Greek pottery, the silhouetting of red figures against a black background, with painted linear details, reverse of black figure style

canon of polykleitos

standard of sculptural perfection

pebble mosaics

a mosaic made of irregularly shaped stones of various colors


major Greek city, home of the Acropolis


ancient Greek city, home to amazing temples


sanctuary in ancient Greece, home to the gods and games


small Greek polis, home to the Avaton of Epidauros


ancient arcadian home, great architectural feats


a celebrated hero, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, possessing exceptionalstrength: among his many adventures were the twelve labors for his cousin Eurystheus, performed in order to gain immortality


the virgin deity of the ancient Greeks worshiped as the goddess of wisdom,fertility, the useful arts, and prudent warfare. At her birth she sprang forth fully armed from the head of her father, Zeus.


king of the gods,ruled the sky and alloted the sea to his brother poseidon and the underworld to his other brother hades. weapon=thunderbolt

Dipylon Master

The Dipylon Master was an ancient Greek vase painter who was active from around 760–750 BC. He worked in Athens, where he and his workshop produced large funerary vessels for those interred in the Dipylon cemetery, whence his name comes. His work belongs to the very Late stage of the Geometric Style.


Exekias was an ancient Greek vase-painter and potter who was active in Athens between roughly 545 BC and 530 BC.[1] Exekias worked mainly in the black-figure technique, which involved the painting of scenes using a clay slip that fired to black, with details created through incision


(flourished c. 515–500 bc), an early adopter of the Athenian red-figure technique, a contemporary and perhaps rival of Euphronius. He is admired for his explorations in foreshortening and for his studies in movement, both departures from Archaic convention.


495 – 429 BCE was arguably the most prominent and influentialGreek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age— specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.


was an architect active in the mid 5th century BCE. Ancient sources identify Ictinus and Callicrates as co-architects of the Parthenon.


(flourished 5th century bc), Athenian architect who designed theTemple of Athena Nike on the Athenian Acropolis and, with Ictinus, the Parthenon.


Athenian sculptor, the artistic director of the construction of the Parthenon, who created its most important religious images and supervised and probably designed its overall sculptural decoration


(flourished c. 450–c. 415 bc), Greek sculptor from the school of Argos, known for his masterly bronze sculptures of young athletes; he was also one of the most significant aestheticians in the history of art


(flourished 370–330 bce), greatest of the Attic sculptors of the 4th century bce and one of the most original of Greek artists. By transforming the detached and majestic style of his immediate predecessors into one of gentle grace and sensuous charm, he profoundly influenced the subsequent course of Greek sculpture


Greek sculptor, head of the school at Argos and Sicyon in the time of Philip of Macedon and especially active during the reign of Philip’s sonAlexander the Great (336–323 bc). Lysippus was famous for the new and slender proportions of his figures and for their lifelike naturalism.

Iktinos and Kallikrates, parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447-438 BCE

Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, 740 BCE

Hero and Centaur, Olympia, Greece, 750-730 BCE

Mantiklos Apollo, statuette of a youth, Thebes, Greece, 700-680 BCE, Bronze

Lady of Auxerre, 650-625 BCE, limestone

Temple A, Prinias, 625 BCE

Lintel of Temple A, Prinias, 625 BCE

Kouros, from Attica, Greece, 600 BCE

Kroisos, Anavysos, Greece, 530 BCE

Peplos Kore, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 530 BCE

Kore in Ionian dress, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 520-510 BCE

Plan of typical Greek peripteral temple

Elevations of the Doric and Ionic orders, major differences between the two orders are the form of the capitals and the treatment of the Frieze, Doric frieze is subdivided into triglyphs and metopes

Temple of Hera, Paestum, Italy, 550 BCE, the peristyle of this huge early Doric temple consists of heavy, closely spaced, cigar-shaped columns with bulky, pancakelike capitals, characteristic features of Archaic Greek architecture

Kleitias and Ergotimos, Francois vase, Chiusi, Italy, 570 BCE, the painter and the potter signed this vase found in an Etruscan tomb, the vase has more than 200 figures in five registers

Exekias, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game, Vulci, Italy, 540-530 BCE

Euthymides, Three revelers, Vulci, Italy, 510 BCE, Euthymides chose this theme as an excuse to represent bodies in unusual positions, including forshortened three-quarter rear view. he claimed to have surpassed Euphronios as a draftsman

Apollo, West Pediment, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, 470-456 BCE, the epitome of calm rationality, Apollo, with a commanding gesture of his right hand, attempts to bring order out of the chaotic struggle all around him between the Lapiths and the beastly centaurs

Athena, Herakles, and Atlas with the apples of the Hesperides, metope from the temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, 470-465 BCE

Kritios Boy, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 480 BCE

warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, 460-450 BCE

Polykleitos, Doryphoros, Pompeii, Italy, 450-440 BCE

Aerial view of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece

Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447-432 BCE

Phidias, Athena parthenos, in the cella of the parthenon, Athens, Greece, 438 BCE

Centauromachy, metope from the south side of the parthenon, Athens, Greece, 447-438 BCE

Helios and his horses, and Dionysos, form the east pediment of the parthenon, Athens, Greece, 438-432 BCE

Three goddesses, Athens, Greece, 438-432 BCE

Three details of the Panathenaic Festival procession frieze, Athens, Greece, 447-438 BCE, marble

Achilles Painter, Warrior taking leave of his wife, from Eretria, Greece, 440 BCE

Niobid Painter, Artemis and Apollo slaying the children of Niobe, Orvieto, Italy, 450 BCE

Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, Musei Vaticani, Rome, 350-340 BCE

Lysippos, Apoxymenos, Musei Vaticani, Rome, 330 BCE

Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella, Greece, third century BCE

Hades abducting Persephone, detail of a wall painting in tomb, Vergina, Greece, mid-fourth Century BCE

Philoxenos of Eretria, Battle of Issus, Pompeii, Italy, 310 BCE

Polykleitos The Younger, aerial view of the theater, Epidauros, Greece, 350 BCE

Stoa of Attalos II, Agora, Athens, Greece,150 BCE

Reconstructed west front of the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, 175 BCE

Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail of the gigantomachy frieze, Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, 175 BCE


people who occupied middle Italy in early Roman days, and whom the Romans, in their usual neighborly fashion, wiped out entirely


a decorative pin, usually used to fasten garments


in etruscan architecture, tumuli cover one or more subterranean multichambered tombs cut out of the local tufa (limestone)


Greek city of the dead, a large burial area or cemetery

Roman Republic

period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire


an aristocrat or nobleman


a member of the lower social classes

Roman concrete

a material used in construction during the late Roman Republic through the whole history of the Roman Empire. Roman concrete was based on a hydraulic-setting cement with many material qualities similar to modern portland cement


the theory that rigid representation of truth and reality is essential to art and literature, and therefore the ugly and vulgar must be included.


the public square of an ancient Rome city


In Roman architecture, a public building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side. In Christian architecture, a church somewhat resembling the Roman basilica, usually entered form one end and with an apse at the other


Greek, double theater, a Roman building type resembling two Greek theaters put together. The Roman amphitheater featured a continuous elliptical cavea around a central arena.

first style Roman wall painting

the decorator's aim was to imitate costly marble panels using painted stucco relief

second style

new approach to mural design became more popular, is in most respects an antithesis of the first style, did not aim to create the illusion of an elegant marble wall

third style

artists no longer attempted to replace the walls in three-dimensional worlds of their own creation, nor did they seek to imitate the appearance of the marble walls of Hellenistic kings

triumphal arch

In Roman architecture, a free-standing arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road


Roman colonial town in the Aurès Mountains ofAlgeria, founded by the Emperor Trajan around AD 100


in roman architecture, a single-room shop usually covered by a barrel vault


a hemispherical vault; theoretically, an arch rotated on its vertical axis, the Mycenaean architecture, domes are beehive-shaped


in roman architecture a multistory apartment house, usually made of brick-faced concrete, also refers to an entire city-block


bathhouse was an important meeting place for politicians and the elite


building is circular with aportico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky


was the founder of theRoman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD


was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father


was Roman emperor from 98 AD until his death in 117 AD. Officially declared by the Senate as optimus princeps ("the best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion inRoman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death


was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors


Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Empire

Apollodorus of Damascus

Damascus-born Greek engineer and architect who worked primarily for the Roman emperor Trajan (reigned 98–117). He was banished by the emperor Hadrian—perhaps following a disagreement about a temple design—and executed about 130

Interior of the Tomb of the Augurs, Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, 520 BCE

Fibula with Orientalizing lions, from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Sorbo necropolis, Cerveteri, Italy, 650-640 BCE

Model of a typical Etruscan temple of sixth century BCE

Apulu, from the roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, Italy, 510-500 BCE

Sarcophagus with reclining couple, Cerveteri, Italy, 520 BCE painted terracotta

Tumuli in the Banditaccia necropolis, Italy, seventh to second centuries BCE

Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Banditaccia, necropolis,Italy, late fourth or early third century, BCE

Interior of the Tomb of the Leopards, Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, Italy, 480-470 BCE

Detail of three bands of the spiral frieze of the Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy 112 BCE

Restored view of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, late second century

man with portrait busts of his ancestors, from Rome, late first century BCE, marble

Portrait of Roman general, Tivoli, Italy, 75-50 BCE

Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, Rome, Italy, 30 BCE, marble

Aerial view of the forum, Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE

Restored view and plan of a typical Roman house of the late Republic and Early Empire

first style wall paintings in the fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy, late second century BCE

Gardenscape, Second style wall paintings, Primaporta, Italy, 30-20 BCE

Detail of a Third Style wall painting, Boscotrecase, Italy, 10 BCE

fourth style wall paintings in the Ixion Room of House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, 70-79 BCE

Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from house, Pompeii, Italy, 70-79 BCE, fresco

Portrait of Augustus as general, primaporta, Italy, early first century, 20 BCE, marble

Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13-9 BCE

female personification, Ara Pacis, Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13-9 BCE

Pont-du-Gard, Nimes, France,16BCE

Aerial view of the Colosseum, Rome, Italy, 70-80CE

Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, Rome, Italy, 90CE

West Facade if the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81CE

Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel in the passageway of the Arch of titus, Rome, Italy 81CE

Triumph of Titus, relief panel in passageway of the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81CE

Satellite view of Timgad, Algeria, 100CE

Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Italy, 112CE

Apollodorus of Damascus, interior of the great hall, Rome, Italy, 100-112CE

Apollodorus of Damascus, Market of Trajan, Rome, Italy, 100-112 CE

Portrait bust of Hadrian, Rome, 117-120CE

Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118-125CE

restored cuttaway view and lateral section of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118-125CE

interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118-125 CE

model of an insula, Ostia, Italy, second cent

Funerary relief of a vegetable vendor, from Ostia, Italy, painted terracotta, second half of second century

Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, Rome, Italy, 175 CE

Sarcophagus with the myth of Orestes, 140-150CE, marble

Mummy portrait of a priest of Serapis, from Hawara, Egypt, 140-160CE

Frigidarium, Baths of Diocletian, Rome, 298-306


a coffin usually of stone


Jewish house of worship


Jewish book of scripture


Jewish god


subterranean networks of rock-cut galleries and chambers designed as cemeteries for the burial of the dead

Good Shepherd

The Good Shepherd is a pericope found in John 10:1-21 in which Jesus is depicted as the Good Shepherd who lays down his life for the sheep.

Story of Jonah

Jonah, son of Amittai, appears in 2 Kings as a prophet from Gath-hepher(a few miles north of Nazareth) active during the reign of Jeroboam II (c.786–746 BC), who predicts that Jeroboam will recover certain lost territories.

Christian Basilica

The remains of a large subterranean Neopythagorean basilica dating from the 1st century AD were found near thePorta Maggiore in Rome in 1915. The ground-plan of Christian basilicas in the4th century was similar to that of this Neopythagorean basilica, which had three naves and an apse.

Longitudinal axis

extending in the direction of the length of a thing; running lengthwise


a porch or vestibule of a church, generally colonnaded or arcaded and preceding the nave


the central area of an ancient Roman basilica or of a church, demarcated from aisles by piers or columns


the portion of a basilica flanking the nave and separated from it by a row of columns or piers


a recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a building, commonly found at the east end of a church

central plan-design

the horizontal arrangement of the parts of a building or of the buildings and streets of a city or town, or a drawing or diagram showing such an arrangement. In a central plan the parts of the structure are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center

mosaic- tesserae

patterns or pictures made by embedding small pieces(tesserae) of stone or glass in cement on surgaces such as walls and floors, the technique of making such works

illuminated manuscripts

a luxurious handmade book with painted illustrations and decorations


lambskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting


a monumental tomb, the name derives from the mid-fourth century BCE tomb of Mausolos at Halikarnassos, one of the seven wonders of the world


Byzantium was the ancient Greek city on the site that later became Constantinople (modern Istanbul).


Byzantine Emperor for four months in 641. He was the eldest son of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudokia.


Justinian the Great, was a Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire

Barberini Ivory

The Barberini ivory is a Byzantine ivory leaf from an imperial diptych dating from Late Antiquity, now in the Louvre in Paris. It represents the emperor as triumphant victor. It is generally dated from the first half of the 6th century and is attributed to an imperial workshop in Constantinople, while the emperor is usually identified as Justinian, or possibly Anastasius I orZeno.


a portrait or image; especially in Byzantine churches, a panel with a painting of sacred personages that are objects of veneration. In the visual arts, a painting, a piece of sculpture, or even a building regarded as an object of veneration


The destruction of religious or sacred images, In Byzantium the period from 726-843 when there was an imperial ban on such images. the destroyers of images were known as iconoclasts. those who opposed such a ban were known as iconophiles


a concave, triangular section of a hemisphere, four of which provide the transition from a square area to the circular base of a covering dome. although pendentives appear to be hanging from the dome, they in fact support it

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Rome, Italy, 359

Interior of the Synagogue, Dura Europos, Syria, 245-256

The Good Shepherd, the story of Jonah and orants, Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy, early fourth century

Restored cutaway view and plan of Old Saint Peter's, Rome, Italy, 319

Plan of Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy, 337-351

Detail of the mosaic in the ambulatory vault of Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy, 337-351

The parting of Abraham and Lot, mosaic in the nave of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, Italy, 432-440

Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, 425

Christ as Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, 425

Interior of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy, dedicated 504

Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, Vienna Genesis, early sixth century

Interior of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547

Justinian as world conqueror, mid-sixth cent, Barberini Ivory

Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Constantinople, Turkey, 532-537

Plan of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, Turkey, 532-537

Interior of Hagia Sophia, constantinople, Turkey, 532-537

Aerial View of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547

Dome on pendentives and on squinches

Plan of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547

Choir and Apse of San Vitale with mosaic of Christ between two angels, Saint Vitalis, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547

Justinian, Bishop Maximus, and attendants, mosaic on the north wall of the apse, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 547

Theodora and Attendants, mosaic on the south wall of the apse, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 547

Transfiguration of Jesus, apse mosaic, Church of the virgin, monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt, 548-565

Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George, icon, sixth or early seventh century, Mount Sinai, Egypt


the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words andreligious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a unique and personal god,



muslim holy book


a soft, twilled silk or rayon fabric


a Muslim temple or place of public worship

hypostyle hall

a hall with a roof supported by columns


a distinctive feature of mosque architecture, a tower from which the faithful are called to worship


a semicircular niche set into the qibla wall of a mosque


a monumental tomb, the name derives from the mid-fourth century BCE tomb of Mausolos at Halikarnassos, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world


beautiful writing, handwriting or penmanship, especially elegant writing as a decorative art


islamic rulers, regarded as successors of Muhammad


Also, Mohammed, Mahomet. a.d. 570–632, Arab prophet: founder of Islam

aerial view of the mezquita, Cordoba, Spain, 8-10th century

Dome of the rock, jerusalem, 687-692

Interior of the dome of the rock, Jerusalem, 687-692

Aerial view of the Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 706-715

detail of a mosaic in the courtyard arcade of the Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 706-715

Aerial view of Great Mosque, Kairouan, Tunisia, 836-875

mausoleum of the samanids, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, early 10th century

prayer hall of the mezquita, Cordoba, Spain, 8th-10th century

Maqsura of the mezquita, Cordoba, spain, 961-965

pyzis of al-Mughira, from medina al Zahra, near cordoba, spain 968

Sulayman, ewer in the form of a bird 796, brass and silver and copper,

Koran page with beginning of Surah 18, 9th or 10th century

dish with Arabic proverb, from Nishapur, Iran, 10th century

Court of lions, Palace of the lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 1354-1391

Muqarnas dome, Hall of the Abencerrajes, Palace of the lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 1354-1391


a person sent on a religious mission, especially one sent to promote Christianity in a foreign country


a group of buildings in which monks live together, set apart from the secular community of a town


a monastery courtyard, usually with covered walks or ambulatories along its sides

benedictine rule

The Rule of Saint Benedict is a book of precepts written by St. Benedict of Nursia for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.

Ship burial

A ship burial or boat grave is a burial in which a ship or boat is used either as a container for the dead and the grave goods, or as a part of the grave goods itself. If the ship is very small, it is called a boat grave. This style of burial was used among the Germanic peoples, particularly by Viking Age Norsemen

zoomorphic elements

of or relating to a deity or other being conceived of as having the form of an animal


an art style that flourished in the monasteries of the British isles in the early Middle Ages, also called insular


a room, as in a monastery, library, or other institution, where manuscripts are stored,read, or copied.

illuminated manuscripts

a luxurious handmade book with painted illustrations and decorations


the Latin version of the Bible, prepared chiefly by Saint Jerome at the end of the 4th century a.d., and used as the authorized version of the Roman Catholic Church.


the story of Christ's life and teachings, especially as contained in the first four books of the New Testament, namely Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

carpet page

in the medieval manuscripts, a decorative page resembling a textile

high cross

free-standing Christian crossmade of stone and often richly decorated



The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.


an Old English epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines. It is possibly the oldest surviving long poem in Old English and is commonly cited as one of the most important works of Old English literature


the facade and towers at the western end of a medieval church, principally in Germany. In contemporaneous documents the westwork is called a castellum or turris


pertaining to the empire of Otto I and his successors


A crucifix is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself attached to the cross is referred to in English as the corpus

Chi-rho-iota page, Iona, Scotland, late eighth/ninth century

pair of merovingian looped fibulae, France, mid-sixth century

purse cover, Sutton Hoo Ship burial in Suffolk, England, 625

animal-head post from the viking burial ship, Oseberg, Norway, 825

Man, symbol of saint Matthew, Iona, Scotland, 670

cross-inscribed carpet page, Northumbria, England, 700

Saint Matthew, Northumbria,England, 700

High Cross of Muiredach, Monasterboice, Ireland,923

Christ enthroned, Godesalc Lectionary, 782

Saint Matthew, Coronation Gospels, Aachen, Germany, 805

Saint Matthew Ebbo Gospels, Hautvillers, France, 830

Crucifixion, Lindau Gospels, Saint Gall, Switzerland, 870

Restored plan of Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805

Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 800

Schematic plan for a monastery, Saint Gall, Switzerland, 819

Nave of the church of Saint Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 970

Saint Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany, 1020

Longitudinal section and plan of the abbey church of Saint Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany, 1020

Doors with relief panels, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015

God accusing Adam and Eve, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015

Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, Cologne, Germany, 970

Otto III enthroned, Reichenau, Germany, 1000


Roman-like, a term used to describe the history, culture, and art of medieval western Europe from 1050-1200


the body parts, clothing, or objects associated with a holy figure, such as the Buddha, Christ, or a Christian saint


a container for holding relics


a person who journeys to a sacred place for religious reasons


a religious journey


the space reserved for the clergy and singers in the church, usually east of the transept but, in some instances, extending into the nave


a covered walkway, outdoors or indoors; especially the passageway around the apse and the choir of a church

radiating chapels

in the medieval churches, chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto the ambulatory and the transept

pilgrimage church

churches on route of a pilgrimage or final destination of religious journey


the part of the church with an axis that crosses the nave at a right angle

groin vault

the intersection between two barrel vaults

church portals

a large and impressive entrance/doorway


in the church architecture, the pillar or center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway

historiated capitals

ornamented with representations, such as plants, animals, or human figures, that have a narrative, as distinct from a purely decorative function of the uppermost part column

tympanum and archivolts

1) the space enclosed in by a lintel and an arch over a doorway

2) the continuous molding framing an arch. In the Romanesque and Gothic architecture, one of the series of concentric bands framing the tympanum

Book of Revelations

The Book of Revelation, often known simply asRevelation or The Apocalypse, is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology. Its title is derived from the first word of the text, written in Koine Greek: apokalypsis, meaning"unveiling" or "revelation"

second coming - last judgment

The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a concept in Christianity regarding a future return of Jesus to Earth after his "first coming"and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago


painting on lime plaster, either dry or wet. in the latter method the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster


an almond-shaped nimbus surrounding the figure of christ or other sacred figure

Throne of Wisdom

identified with one of many devotional titles for the Mother of God. The iconographic realization of the "Seat of Wisdom" in Italy, especially, is referred to as the Maestà


the technique of sewing threads onto a finished ground to form contrasting designs. Stem stitching employs short overlapping strands if thread to form jagged lines. laid-and-couched work creates solid blocks of color

Gislebertus, Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, 1120-135

Reliquary statue of Sainte-Foy, late 10th to early 11th century with later additions

aerial view of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1070-1120

Plan of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1070-1120

Interior of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1070-1120

Restored view of the third abbey church, Cluny, France, 1088-1130

general view of the cloister, Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, 1100-1115

South Portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, 115-1135

Old Testament prophet, right side of the Trumeau of the south portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, 1115-1130

Pentecost and Mission of the Apostles, tympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine, Vézelay, France, 1120-1132

Christ in Majesty, apse, Santa Maria de Mur, near Lérida, Spain, mid-12th century, Fresco

Mother and child, Auvergne, France, second half of the 12th century

Master Hugo, Moses Expounding the Law, Bury Saint Edmunds, England, 1135

Eadwine the scribe at work, 1160-1170, Trinity college, Cambridge

Funeral procession to Westminster Abbey Bayeux Cathedral, France, 1070-1080

Battle of Hastings, Bayeux, France, 1070-1080

aerial view of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1194
ambulatory and radiating chapels, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140
Plan of the east end, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140

West Facade, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1145
Royal Portal, west facade, Chartres, France, 1145
Old Testament kings and queen, jamb statues, Chartres, France, 1145
Notre-Dame, Paris, France, begun 1163, nave-flying buttresses, remodeled 1225
Interior of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1145
Stonemasons and sculptors, detail of a stained-glass window in the northernmost radiating chapel in the ambulatory, Chartres, France, 1200
Virgin and Child and Angels, Chartres, France, 1170
Rose Window and lancets, north transept, Chartres, France, 1220
Gaucher de Reims and Bernard de Soissons, west facade of Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, 1225
Annunciation and Visitation jamb statues, Reims, France, 1230
Virgin and Child, Notre-Dame, Paris, early 14th century
Aerial View of the fortified town of Carcassonne, France, 12th-13th century
Inner courtyard of the house of Jaques Couer, Bourges, France, 1443
Hall of the Cloth Guild, Bruges, Belgium, 1230
God as Creator of the world, Paris, France, 1220
Blanche of Castile, Paris, France, 1226
Abraham and the three angels, pslater of Saint Louis, Paris, France, 1253
Virgin of Jeanne d'Evreux, abbey of Saint Denis, France, 1339
Castle of Love, lid of jewelry box, Paris, France, 1330
Naumburg Master, Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg, Germany, 1250
Rottgen Pieta, Rhineland, Germany, 1300