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88 Cards in this Set

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Domestication in the Near East
Mobile Foragers -->
Sedentism-->
Pop./Resource Stress-->
Domestication-->
Agriculture
Querns
Natufian grinding stones
Domestication in Mesoamerica
Mobile Foragers-->
Domestication-->
High Corn Yields-->
Sedentism/Pop. growth-->
Agriculture
Natufian Phase (Near East Domestication)
11000-9000 BCE
Sedentary foragers.
Ain Mallaha, Israel
Natufian sickles for harvesting grain.
Archaic Period (Mesoamerican Domestication)
8000-1000 BCE
Tehuacan Valley & Valley of Oaxaca
Guila Naquitz Cave (Archaic Period)
8750 - 6650 BCE
Foragers with seasonal camps.
Domesticated squash by 8000 BCE
Ate rabbit, deer, maguey, mesquite.
Tehuacan Valley (Archaic Period)
10000-7000 BCE
Foragers with seasonal camps.
Domesticated squash.
Grinding stones.
Domesticates 6% of diet.
Tehuacan Valley (Archaic Period)
5000-3400 BCE
Mobile foragers
Domesticated corn, bean, squash (14% of diet)
Tehuacan Valley (Archaic Period)
3400 - 1500 BCE
Settled village life
domesticates up to 50% diet
Differences between Near East and Mesoamerica in Domestication
Plant Productivity, Plant Genetics, Animal Ecology
Middle Paleolithic
South Africa (~160 - 60 kya)
Blombos Cave
Carved & Cut Ochre (~160 kya)
Klasies River Mouth
Middle Paleolithic Stone Tools
Microliths - tiny shaped flakes (72 kya). Heat treated.
Upper Paleolithic
~40- 10 kya
Upper Paleolithic Tools
Ivory needles
stone blades & compound tools
harpoons, spears, awls
Spear-thrower
Upper Paleolithic Textiles & art
Marine shell beads (trading, migration)
Animal figurines
'venus' figurines (28-22 kya)
Upper Paleolithic subsistence
foraging & seasonal mobility
Dolni Vestonice
Upper Paleolithic site (25 kya)
crafts, rituals, triple burials, ochre-stained bones
Lascaux Caves, France
17 kya
over 2000 paintings
The Cosquer Cave, France
27-19kya
penguins, jellyfish, seals & mammals painted
Peopling of Australia (~40 kya)
Lake Mungo
Archaeology
The scientific study of past peoples & cultures from the deepest prehistory to the recent past through the analysis of material remains
Richard Hansen
Studied El Mirador
Ancient Guatamalan Mayan city
William Rathje
the garbage man
Pseudoscience
People using the language/structure of science to present patently false information
Piltdown Man Hoax
Charles Dawson & Arthur Smith Woodward
Claimed predecessor to apes & humans. Actually composed of two different animals
Gustav Kossina
(1858-1931)
wrote "German Prehistory: a Pre-eminently National Discipline." Total nationalist bunk.
Artifacts
Made by people. Portable.
(e.g. Ceramics, tools, baskets, metal, glass)
Ecofacts
Not necessarily human made
(e.g. animal & plant remains, soil chemistry, landscapes)
Human Remains
skeletons & teeth.
In some cold, oxygen-low places: skin, hair, tissues
Features
discrete locations within sites
(e.g. middens, burials, storage pits, post holes, hearths, structures)
Sites
Places with evidence of human activity
(e.g. roads, caves, houses, camps, agricultural fields, cities, ceremonial centers)
Archaeological Research Methods: Step 1
1) Design formulation/implementation
Archaeological Research Methods: Step 2
2) Data Acquisition (field work)
a) Phase 1 (Reconnaissance & Survey)
b) Phase 2 (testing)
c) Phase 3 (excavations)
Archaeological Research Methods: Step 3
Processing & Analysis (lab work)
Archaeological Research Methods: Step 4
Interpretation
Archaeological Research Methods: Step 5
Dissemination & Conservation
Stratigraphy & strata
layers of material & their study
Absolute Dating
How Long ago?
Relative Dating
In what order did events occur relative to one another?
Context & Associations
Where & Relations
Primary Contexts (in situ)
where the artifacts were when buried
Disturbed Contexts
You aren't the first to touch them since they were placed there.
Associations have been disturbed.
Provenience
context. Where you found it.
Provenance
where it came from originally
Carbon-14 Half Life
5730 years.
Covers 40-60 kya.
Stratigraphy
Law of Superposition: if it's bottom of the stack it's older
Law of Association:
Things found together were likely put there at the same time
Dendrochronology
Counting tree rings. An absolute dating method
Uniformitarianism
there is no evidence to suggest that the natural processes our dating methods rely on have ever been different
Seriation
relative changes in the freq. of artifacts or styles linked to absolute dates
Fossil evidence of hominids
65 mya: grasping hands
25 mya: no tail; teeth shape; swinging arm
Holocene (or Anthropocene)
Climate all over became warmer
Beringia
dry land bridge
60-13 kya
2 possible paths along Beringia
Overland
along the coast in boats hugging shore
Folsom Points
used by big game hunters in N.A.
11.5-10 kya
Clovis Points
throughout N.A.
13.5 kya Lasted 500 years
Monte Verde II, Chile
12.5 kya
No projectile points.
Temporary community. Round structures. Hafted stone tools, tent stakes
Monte Verde I, Chile
33 kya
Possible that humans were in the Americas earlier than anyone thought possible.
Caverna de Piedra Pintada
Anna Roosevelt 1996 excavations. Possibly 13 kya old.
Past-Pleistocene Adaptations
Megafaun disappear. (10 kya) Overkill or climate change (things got warmer).
Between Paleolithic and Neolithic (i.e. foraging and farming)
Mesolithic (Eurasia/Africa): 11000-5000 BCE
Archaic (Americas): 8000-1000 BCE
Vedbaek, Denmark
Mesolithic. 5000 BCE.
Diverse foods, Semi-sedentary. Transitioned between two environments. Organized settlement.
Vedbaek, Denmark pt II
22 individuals buried. Mostly extended posture. Social differences (old men buried w/ antlers). Ochre. Men buried with tools, women with adornment.
Carrier Mills, IL
Archaic (4000-3000 BCE). Continuous occupation. Diverse foods, transitional locations.
Carrier Mills, IL cemetery
>154 burials. Body position varies by age. 21% infants. Most adornment with men. Both men and women with tools. Women died later.
Bottle Gourd
First domesticated plant. 12 kya
Einkorn Wheat & Emmer Wheat
9000-7000BCE
Wild Teosinte to Corn
7000-1000BCE
6 Characteristics that make an animal good for domestication
1) can breed in captivity
2) predictable personality
3) flexible diet
4) reproduce/mature quickly
5) minimal flight instinct/fear of enclosure
6) recognize social hierarchy
dogs
first domesticated animal
genetic evidence: 100kya
archaeological evidence: 14 kya
Domestication Habitat Hypotheses 1: Oasis Theory
1930s. people, animals, and plants congregate in oases, competition prompts domestication
Domestication Habitat Hypotheses 2: Natural Habitat
1940. Domestication occurs in wild ancestors' natural habitat
Domestication Habitat Hypotheses 3: Population Pressure or Edge Hypothesis
1960s. Farming is hard, so moving must have been motivated by pop. growth pressure. Domestication most rapid at edges of fertile zones
Domestication Habitat Hypotheses 4: Social Hypothesis
1970s. Domestication had social reasons, not all used for food.
Domestication Habitat Hypotheses 5: Mutualism
1980s.
Domestication is symbiosis, happens in spite of human intentions.
Pleistocene
2.6mya to 10kya
Lower Paleolithic
2.6 mya to 140 kya (first evidence of stone tools)
Middle Paleolithic
140kya to 40 kya
Upper Paleolithic
40 kya to 10 kya
Distinctly human traits
bipedalism!!, big brains, hair & fur amt., diet (teeth), sexual dimorphism is less pronounced, sweat glands
Skeletal Markers of Bipedalism
Skull location (foramen magnum), spinal shape ('s'), less bowed legs, no opposable toes
Why walk upright?
more efficient foraging, free hands for hunting/carrying, improved vision, reduced exposure to UV
Fully Modern Humans (FMH)
200 kya in Africa
80 kya spreads all over globe
Lower Paleolithic: Homo Habilis
2.5-1.6mya
Olduwan tools
Lower Paleolithic: Homo erectus
1.8mya to 100 kya
fire &
Acheulian tools
Lower Paleolithic: Homo Heidelbergensis
600-200 kya
Middle Paleolthic
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis (250kya- 25 kya)
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
burials, Mousterian tools (140 kya- 40 kya). Disappeared from? competition, too specialized to cold, absorbed through interbreeding