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21 Cards in this Set

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London, Crystal Palace, International Exposition of 1851, arch. Joseph Paxton; cf. Chatsworth Conservatory, 1836: ridge and furrow glazing.
-Joseph Paxton - Landscape designer
-Single hall flanked by narrower galleries
-central transept barrel vaulted around tree
-made of prefabricated machine pieces of iron
-completed in 9 months
-internally braced iron structure, with glass cladding
-As with many of his greenhouses, Paxton used ridge and furrow glazing
-Massive interior heights with glass roofing gives impression of endless space
• Building doesn’t exist anymore
• Built entirely of Iron and glass
• Quickly built and taken apart for temporary festivals; made of prefabricated parts; building completed in 9 months
• Ridge and furrow glazing used for the roofing; comes from Paxton’s green house design
• Painted with primary colors to signify a turning point in architecture (red, blue, yellow)
Severn Bridge, Coalbrookdale, Pritchard & Darby (1779)
-mimicked stone masonry of traditional bridge construction
-even metal voissoirs
St. Pancras Train Station and Hotel, George Gilbert Scott with shed by Barlow & Ordish (1863-65)
-train station as new city gate; adopts some of the language; innovative and traditional forms side by side
Notre-Dame-du-Travail, Jules Astruc (1898-1902)
-traditional exterior; stone cladding; structural interior of iron
-constructed for a parish of iron workers
-medieval church in iron; bays, triforium, cross bracing
Eiffel Tower, Gustave Eiffel (1889)
-gateway to 1889 Exposition on Champ de Mars

-2 years to construct; becomes its own scaffolding
-Otis elevators
-engineer Eiffel folds a arched bridge onto itself
-creates a base of 4 pylons for the tower and 3 roadbeds
-arches strictly ornamental
-open to all who could pay the entry fee
Chicago, Auditorium Building, archs. Dankmar Adler & Louis Sullivan, 1886-90.
St. Louis, Wainwright Building, Adler & Sullivan, 1890;
-cf.composition of a classical column.
Chicago, Carson Pirie Scott and Company Building, arch. Sullivan, 1903-04.
Chicago, Home Insurance Building, arch. William LeBaron Jenney, 1884
-demolished 1931;
-first metal frame “skyscraper.”
Chicago, Reliance Building, arch. Charles Atwood, working in firm of Daniel Burnham
and John Root, 1890-95;
-first metal frame skyscraper, still standing
-“Chicago window.”
Chicago, IL, Robie House, 1909; “Prairie House.”

Prairie style houses usually have these features:

Low-pitched roof
Overhanging eaves
Horizontal lines
Central chimney
Open floor plan
Clerestory windows
Frank Lloyd Wright believed that rooms in Victorian era homes were boxed-in and confining. He began to design houses with low horizontal lines and open interior spaces. Rooms were often divided by leaded glass panels. Furniture was either built-in or specially designed. These homes were called prairie style after Wright's 1901 Ladies Home Journal plan titled, "A Home in a Prairie Town." Prairie houses were designed to blend in with the flat, prairie landscape.
Bear Run, PA, Kaufmann House, “Fallingwater,” 1936.
Madison WI, Jacobs House, designed in 1936: built for a journalist, his wife and young daughter;1500 sq. ft.; cost $5500 (w/ $450 architect’s fee)
-“Usonian” house...
“Usonian” house.
o Pipes in floors radiated heat and helped to conserve energy?
o L-shape
o Anchored by the core and usually included the kitchen and dining room
o Based on a modular grid (2’ x 4’)
o Board and Baton Windows
• Batton the horizontal strips
New York City, Guggenheim Museum, 1957-59.
Racine, WI, The Johnson Wax Company, Administration Building and Research Tower, 1936-49.
• Hypostyle style of form
Arts and Crafts: William Morris (1834-1896)

- Stark surfaces and simple lines
- Bexley Heath, England, "Red House," Philip Webb, 1859; commissioned by Morris for Himself and his wife.
Brussels, Belgium, Tassel House, Victor Horta, 1892-93.

- "Organic"
Barcelona, Spain, Casa Batlló, Antoní Gaudí, 1904-06.
Helensburgh, Scotland, Hill House, C.R. Mackintosh, 1902-04.

--"Machine Drivin" (Everything was made from machines)
- L-shaped construction
- Based on local vernacular traditions
Utrecht, The Netherlands, Rietveld-
Schroeder House, 1925, arch. Gerrit Rietveld

De Stijl Movement, founded 1917; paintings by Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesberg.
De Stijl Movement, founded 1917; paintings by Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesberg.