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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Stonehege, England (2500 BCE)

Made of earthworks/stones + Circlesin ground surround the stone 3 circles...

1st– earth circle with mounds

2nd– inner circle with small stones

3rd– stone trilithons (Trilithons – two large vertical stones(posts)) supporting a third stone set (lintel) set horizontally over the twoo Postand lintel also known as a post and beam system· Mortise and tenon joints used in theconstruction (Typicallyused in wood construction)

Pyramids Complex, Giza, Egypt, ca.2500 BCE

-Pyramids are solid, no interior space, entranceto the tomb is part way up the side

-Tomb entrance was originally Hiddento deter grave robbers

-Use ramps to carry stones up the pyramido Requiredmany years

-Largest pyramid, known as the Great Pyramid 100,000 workers on the structure for 3 months a year during the Nile’s annualflood§ Impossible to farm the land and populationunemployed so the pharaoh provided work, food and clothing

-Constructedwith limestone

-Sidesare oriented to the four cardinal points of the compass· Mastaba – bench-shaped tomb form Stackedon top of each other to form step pyramid,Evolvedinto the smooth sided pyramid known today

-Flat landscape, pyramids tower over the landscape

-Tallest one nearly 500 ft.

Mohenjo Daru, Indus Valley, Pakistan, ca.2400-2000 BCE

-Walled city built on a grid, large city blocks,subject to floods from the Indus river

·People accessed their homes from above andentered via a ladder (protected from invaders)

-Advanced engineering systems for controllingwater all across the city· ---Made entirely of sun-baked brick

-Bitumenused as the “mortar”· Included palaces, baths, granaries

-Thecivilization was supported from the grain grown in the river valley· Designed as a gridded city· The city was weakened by floods and subsequentlyattacked and destroyed

City plan, Chang'an, China, 6th century CE

-Ancient Han Capitol oriented in cardinal direction

-Eastern end of the Silk Road

-Reflected the orderly principles of Chinese

-Highlights importance of imperial palace/emperor

-Grid allowed soldiers to patrol easy

-Roadways contain drainage system

-Alleys between building opened/closed to help police

-Front to back... less important to more important buildings in back

-Taoist and Buddhist monasteries where everywhere in the city

Great Stupa and Monastery, Sanchi, India, ca.250 BCE-250 CE

-Mandala-sspiritual and ritual symbol of Hinduism/Buhdism (Universe)

-Part of large complex, stupa serves as a reliquary, holds artifacts

-Multiple materials used in construction (gate=stone,walk area=fired brick, Stupa=mud brick)

-Buddhist monks live in viharas (monasteries) scattered around

-Ashaka the Great ordered the stupa to be built

Four gateways alligned in Cardinal Directions

Meant to be walked around in contemplation

Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 125 CE

-Commissioned­­ by Marcus Agrippa (RomanStatesman and architect)

-Built as a temple to all Roman Gods, Pantheonmeans “all Gods”

-Radically new and different building

-Held traditional elementsFrontal porch Porticois the frontal colonnade porch Corinthian columns

-New elements…Oculus was a hole in the center ofthe roof, Coffers are the indents inside the dome (Helped to lighten the loadof the roof on the building)

-Exemplified Roman civilization

-Height of the dome is equal to the width of thecella

-Vast interior space of the temple made itunusual

-Later became a Christian church

-Rich interior ornamented with marbles fromaround the empire

-Built using concrete poured over framing

-Dome varies in thickness from 21 feet at thebase to 4 feet at the top

-Step rings were used to support the outwardforce of the Pantheon and redirect it downward

City plan, Miletus, Turkey, rebuilt after 479 BCE

-Greek colony

-Grid form designed by the Greek city planner Hippodamus(Hippodamus is known as the father of urban planning

-Alexander the Great and the Romans adapted how he designed cities

-Designatedstandard size for city blocks,Allocated public/private space

-Reserved the acropolis(highest place) for the cities most important temples

- Theater of Miletus designed Hippodamus as wellAgora with bouleterion

- Agora – “gatheringplace” center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political lifeBouleterion – council house

City plan, Timgad, Algeria, ca.100 CE

-Roman colony, founded by emperor Trajan asmilitary colony

-Gridded city plan system

-Colonnade lines the main streets of the city

-Illustrates Roman urban planning at it’s height (Mimickedthe ideas of Hippodamus with gathering buildings in middle)

-Constructed entirely of stone

-Streets paved with large rectangularlimestone slabs

-14 baths, demonstrates the attention towardspublic buildings

-Houses had mosaics to offset the absence ofmarble in the construction of the city

-Square enclosure and orthogonal design based oncardo and decumanus the two perpendicular routes running through the city

-City itself used to show the grandeur of Rome onNumidian soil

-City spread to the west and the South beyond theramparts

-Library, demonstrates presence of fullydeveloped system shows culture

Great Wall, China (221 BCE- 17th century CE)

-Initially independent fortifications united intoone continuous wall by Qin Shi Huangdi

-Largely rebuilt during the 14th-17thcenturies during the Ming Dynasty

-Defensive wall to protect against the Mongolsfrom the North· Before the use of bricks, the wall was mainlybuilt from earth, stone and wood

-Series of beacon and watch towers

-Varies in height along the wall, tallest inflat, militarily important locations, shorter while passing over the steepmountains

-Used local materials in the construction of thewall

-Laborers included soldiers, forcibly recruitedpeasants, convicts and war prisoners

-Bodies of workers that died were put into the wall

-Symbol of Chinese strength

Parthenon and Acropolis, Athens,Greece, 448-432 BCE

-Most famous exampleof Doric columns

-Acropolis (definition) – highest point in the cityAcropolis had multiple buildings on it, the most famousbeing the ParthenonParthenon was a symbol democracy and Greek civilization

-Dedicated to Athena Parthenos the goddess of the city ofAthens (Built under the instruction of Pericles)

-The cella (inner chamber) was large to accommodate theoversized statue of Athena

-The middle of the Doric columns bulged to represent life andthe burden of the weight of the Parthenon as well as an optical illusion tomake them appear straight (entasis)

-Frieze is the marble sculpture that adorned theupper part of the cella or naos

-Pedement is the upper triangular part needed to makethe roof sloped--Very precise construction, scaled the columns down tofigure out exact diameters of each slab

Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, 80 CE

-Built by the Flavian family

-Housed the gladiator games

-Completely manmade oval amphitheater

-Underground level

-4 tiers of seats with service areas below

-The arena floor was wooden

-Name comes from the Colossus of Nero (statue ofemperor)

-Barrel vaults (Seriesof individual arches that ran across and around the colosseum)

-Start of using concrete

-Distinctive elements: (Outerfaçade engaged columns embellished building

-Differentcolumn orders at each level-Doriclowest, Ionic, Corinthian, Corinthian pilasters

-First amphitheater to have rooms underneath the seats

-35,000 people could sit in it

St. John Lateran, Rome, Italy, 313 CE

-Located outside the city due to the politicalopposition from the Pagan aristocracy

-Constructed in the shape of the cross (Shows that it is free from Paganassociation)

-Most major of the basilicas of Rome

-Adjacent to the boundaries of the Vatican city

-First early Christian church

-Post and lintel construction with a truss roof

-Utilized the longitudinal (basilica) plan

-Ordered by the first Christian Emperor,Constantine

-Seat of the Bishop of Rome (Pope)

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey, 532-37,

-Justinian’s great church

-Minaret towers surrounding it, later added whenit was converted to a Muslim church

-Combined longitudinal and centralized churchplans

-Pendentive (curved triangle thing) helps toredirect the outward force down

-Gold mosaics and marble on the interior

-Enter through the atrium to the interior of thechurch

-Lots of windows

-Brick layers use more mortar than brick whichactually weaken the wall

Monastery and Church, Cluny, France, 11th century

-5 aisled church

-Elaborate apse with radiating chapels

-Although it was a Romanesque church it utilizedfired brick instead of stone or marble

-Utilized the longitudinal plan

-Built in the Romanesque style which utilizedsemicircular arches

-One of the spots on a pilgrimage trip

-Almost entirely destroyed during the Frenchrevolution

-Charlemagne was Emperor at the time it was built

-Choir which was seating for the clergy and thechoir

St. Foy, Conques, France, ca.1050-1130

-Tympanum – triangular or semi-circular decorativewall surface over an entrance, contains sculpture or other elements

-On a pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela

-Chavet is the small chapel connected to the mainchapel

-Two towers in the front of the chapel make up thewestwerk

-Made of fired brick

-Rib vault (Vault where ribs ride below andusually support the vault web)

-Utilizes the longitudinal plan

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691

-Detailed mosaics

-Fired brick, masonry construction-Qibla is the direction that Muslims should prayso that they face Mecca

....Islamic places of worship are oriented towards Mecca

....Amihrab is a semi-circular niche in the wall that indicates the direction topray

...Minbaris a pulpit in the mosque where the prayer leader delivers sermons

-Ablution fountain – where Muslims wash beforeprayer-Sahn is the outer courtyard area of the dome-Minaret – tall slender tower part of the mosquefrom where a muezzin (priest) calls Muslims to prayer (means entrance)

-Muqarnas – form of architectural ornamentalvaulting which results in the geometric subdivision leading to a sort of cellular structure

-Surrounds the holy rock where Muhammad ascended to heaven

Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 706-715

-Ablution fountain – where Muslims wash beforeprayer

-Sahn is the outer courtyard area of the dome

-Minaret – tall slender tower part of the mosquefrom where a muezzin (priest) calls Muslims to prayer (means entrance)

-Muqarnas – form of architectural ornamentalvaulting which results in the geometric subdivision leading to a sort ofcellular structure-Surrounds the holy rock where Muhammad ascendedto heaven

Notre-Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1194-1250

-Flying buttresses made up the external skeletonof the cathedral and supported the high vertical walls

-Tracery is ornamental stone divisions used onthe windows

-Utilized pointed arches

-Gothic architecture





-Masonry construction and fired brick