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18 Cards in this Set

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Stonehege, England (2500 BCE)


Made of earthworks/stones + Circlesin ground surround the stone 3 circles...


1st– earth circle with mounds


2nd– inner circle with small stones


3rd– stone trilithons (Trilithons – two large vertical stones(posts)) supporting a third stone set (lintel) set horizontally over the twoo Postand lintel also known as a post and beam system· Mortise and tenon joints used in theconstruction (Typicallyused in wood construction)

Pyramids Complex, Giza, Egypt, ca.2500 BCE


-Pyramids are solid, no interior space, entranceto the tomb is part way up the side


-Tomb entrance was originally Hiddento deter grave robbers


-Use ramps to carry stones up the pyramido Requiredmany years


-Largest pyramid, known as the Great Pyramid 100,000 workers on the structure for 3 months a year during the Nile’s annualflood§ Impossible to farm the land and populationunemployed so the pharaoh provided work, food and clothing


-Constructedwith limestone


-Sidesare oriented to the four cardinal points of the compass· Mastaba – bench-shaped tomb form Stackedon top of each other to form step pyramid,Evolvedinto the smooth sided pyramid known today


-Flat landscape, pyramids tower over the landscape


-Tallest one nearly 500 ft.

Mohenjo Daru, Indus Valley, Pakistan, ca.2400-2000 BCE


-Walled city built on a grid, large city blocks,subject to floods from the Indus river


·People accessed their homes from above andentered via a ladder (protected from invaders)


-Advanced engineering systems for controllingwater all across the city· ---Made entirely of sun-baked brick


-Bitumenused as the “mortar”· Included palaces, baths, granaries


-Thecivilization was supported from the grain grown in the river valley· Designed as a gridded city· The city was weakened by floods and subsequentlyattacked and destroyed

City plan, Chang'an, China, 6th century CE


-Ancient Han Capitol oriented in cardinal direction


-Eastern end of the Silk Road


-Reflected the orderly principles of Chinese


-Highlights importance of imperial palace/emperor


-Grid allowed soldiers to patrol easy


-Roadways contain drainage system


-Alleys between building opened/closed to help police


-Front to back... less important to more important buildings in back


-Taoist and Buddhist monasteries where everywhere in the city

Great Stupa and Monastery, Sanchi, India, ca.250 BCE-250 CE


-Mandala-sspiritual and ritual symbol of Hinduism/Buhdism (Universe)


-Part of large complex, stupa serves as a reliquary, holds artifacts


-Multiple materials used in construction (gate=stone,walk area=fired brick, Stupa=mud brick)


-Buddhist monks live in viharas (monasteries) scattered around


-Ashaka the Great ordered the stupa to be built


Four gateways alligned in Cardinal Directions


Meant to be walked around in contemplation

Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 125 CE


-Commissioned­­ by Marcus Agrippa (RomanStatesman and architect)


-Built as a temple to all Roman Gods, Pantheonmeans “all Gods”


-Radically new and different building


-Held traditional elementsFrontal porch Porticois the frontal colonnade porch Corinthian columns


-New elements…Oculus was a hole in the center ofthe roof, Coffers are the indents inside the dome (Helped to lighten the loadof the roof on the building)


-Exemplified Roman civilization


-Height of the dome is equal to the width of thecella


-Vast interior space of the temple made itunusual


-Later became a Christian church


-Rich interior ornamented with marbles fromaround the empire


-Built using concrete poured over framing


-Dome varies in thickness from 21 feet at thebase to 4 feet at the top


-Step rings were used to support the outwardforce of the Pantheon and redirect it downward

City plan, Miletus, Turkey, rebuilt after 479 BCE


-Greek colony


-Grid form designed by the Greek city planner Hippodamus(Hippodamus is known as the father of urban planning


-Alexander the Great and the Romans adapted how he designed cities


-Designatedstandard size for city blocks,Allocated public/private space


-Reserved the acropolis(highest place) for the cities most important temples


- Theater of Miletus designed Hippodamus as wellAgora with bouleterion


- Agora – “gatheringplace” center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political lifeBouleterion – council house

City plan, Timgad, Algeria, ca.100 CE


-Roman colony, founded by emperor Trajan asmilitary colony


-Gridded city plan system


-Colonnade lines the main streets of the city


-Illustrates Roman urban planning at it’s height (Mimickedthe ideas of Hippodamus with gathering buildings in middle)


-Constructed entirely of stone


-Streets paved with large rectangularlimestone slabs


-14 baths, demonstrates the attention towardspublic buildings


-Houses had mosaics to offset the absence ofmarble in the construction of the city


-Square enclosure and orthogonal design based oncardo and decumanus the two perpendicular routes running through the city


-City itself used to show the grandeur of Rome onNumidian soil


-City spread to the west and the South beyond theramparts


-Library, demonstrates presence of fullydeveloped system shows culture

Great Wall, China (221 BCE- 17th century CE)


-Initially independent fortifications united intoone continuous wall by Qin Shi Huangdi


-Largely rebuilt during the 14th-17thcenturies during the Ming Dynasty


-Defensive wall to protect against the Mongolsfrom the North· Before the use of bricks, the wall was mainlybuilt from earth, stone and wood


-Series of beacon and watch towers


-Varies in height along the wall, tallest inflat, militarily important locations, shorter while passing over the steepmountains


-Used local materials in the construction of thewall


-Laborers included soldiers, forcibly recruitedpeasants, convicts and war prisoners


-Bodies of workers that died were put into the wall


-Symbol of Chinese strength

Parthenon and Acropolis, Athens,Greece, 448-432 BCE


-Most famous exampleof Doric columns


-Acropolis (definition) – highest point in the cityAcropolis had multiple buildings on it, the most famousbeing the ParthenonParthenon was a symbol democracy and Greek civilization


-Dedicated to Athena Parthenos the goddess of the city ofAthens (Built under the instruction of Pericles)


-The cella (inner chamber) was large to accommodate theoversized statue of Athena


-The middle of the Doric columns bulged to represent life andthe burden of the weight of the Parthenon as well as an optical illusion tomake them appear straight (entasis)


-Frieze is the marble sculpture that adorned theupper part of the cella or naos


-Pedement is the upper triangular part needed to makethe roof sloped--Very precise construction, scaled the columns down tofigure out exact diameters of each slab

Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, 80 CE


-Built by the Flavian family


-Housed the gladiator games


-Completely manmade oval amphitheater


-Underground level


-4 tiers of seats with service areas below


-The arena floor was wooden


-Name comes from the Colossus of Nero (statue ofemperor)


-Barrel vaults (Seriesof individual arches that ran across and around the colosseum)


-Start of using concrete


-Distinctive elements: (Outerfaçade engaged columns embellished building


-Differentcolumn orders at each level-Doriclowest, Ionic, Corinthian, Corinthian pilasters


-First amphitheater to have rooms underneath the seats


-35,000 people could sit in it

St. John Lateran, Rome, Italy, 313 CE


-Located outside the city due to the politicalopposition from the Pagan aristocracy


-Constructed in the shape of the cross (Shows that it is free from Paganassociation)


-Most major of the basilicas of Rome


-Adjacent to the boundaries of the Vatican city


-First early Christian church


-Post and lintel construction with a truss roof


-Utilized the longitudinal (basilica) plan


-Ordered by the first Christian Emperor,Constantine


-Seat of the Bishop of Rome (Pope)

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey, 532-37,


-Justinian’s great church


-Minaret towers surrounding it, later added whenit was converted to a Muslim church


-Combined longitudinal and centralized churchplans


-Pendentive (curved triangle thing) helps toredirect the outward force down


-Gold mosaics and marble on the interior


-Enter through the atrium to the interior of thechurch


-Lots of windows


-Brick layers use more mortar than brick whichactually weaken the wall

Monastery and Church, Cluny, France, 11th century


-5 aisled church


-Elaborate apse with radiating chapels


-Although it was a Romanesque church it utilizedfired brick instead of stone or marble


-Utilized the longitudinal plan


-Built in the Romanesque style which utilizedsemicircular arches


-One of the spots on a pilgrimage trip


-Almost entirely destroyed during the Frenchrevolution


-Charlemagne was Emperor at the time it was built


-Choir which was seating for the clergy and thechoir

St. Foy, Conques, France, ca.1050-1130


-Tympanum – triangular or semi-circular decorativewall surface over an entrance, contains sculpture or other elements


-On a pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela


-Chavet is the small chapel connected to the mainchapel


-Two towers in the front of the chapel make up thewestwerk


-Made of fired brick


-Rib vault (Vault where ribs ride below andusually support the vault web)


-Utilizes the longitudinal plan

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691


-Detailed mosaics


-Fired brick, masonry construction-Qibla is the direction that Muslims should prayso that they face Mecca


....Islamic places of worship are oriented towards Mecca


....Amihrab is a semi-circular niche in the wall that indicates the direction topray


...Minbaris a pulpit in the mosque where the prayer leader delivers sermons


-Ablution fountain – where Muslims wash beforeprayer-Sahn is the outer courtyard area of the dome-Minaret – tall slender tower part of the mosquefrom where a muezzin (priest) calls Muslims to prayer (means entrance)


-Muqarnas – form of architectural ornamentalvaulting which results in the geometric subdivision leading to a sort of cellular structure


-Surrounds the holy rock where Muhammad ascended to heaven

Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 706-715


-Ablution fountain – where Muslims wash beforeprayer


-Sahn is the outer courtyard area of the dome


-Minaret – tall slender tower part of the mosquefrom where a muezzin (priest) calls Muslims to prayer (means entrance)


-Muqarnas – form of architectural ornamentalvaulting which results in the geometric subdivision leading to a sort ofcellular structure-Surrounds the holy rock where Muhammad ascendedto heaven

Notre-Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1194-1250


-Flying buttresses made up the external skeletonof the cathedral and supported the high vertical walls


-Tracery is ornamental stone divisions used onthe windows


-Utilized pointed arches


-Gothic architecture


...Pointedarches


...Stainedglass


...Flyingbuttresses


...Ribvaults


-Masonry construction and fired brick