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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what are the main food groups?

carbs, fats and proteins

why are carbs needed?

a source of energy for life processes

why are fats needed?

1. source of energy

2. make cell membranes

3. insulate our bodies

why are proteins needed?

1.growth and repair

2.building cells

what is respiration?

a chemical reaction that allows cells to take energy from food

what is the metabolic rate?

the speed at which chemical reactions take place in the body

what factors affect the metabolic rate?

1. age

2. gender

3. inherited factors

what is metabolic rate affected by?

1. proportion of muscle to fat in the body

2. amount of physical activity

where is cholesterol made?

the liver

why is cholesterol needed?

for healthy cell membranes

To much cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of...

1. heart disease

2. diseased artiers

what are pathogens and what are the chemicals they contain?

microorganisms that cause disease. Anitgens.

what are the main types of pathogens?

1. bacteria

2. viruses

how do bacteria work?

once inside the body they release poisons/toxins that make us feel ill

what are some diseases caused by bacteria?

1. food poisoning

2. cholera

3. typhoid

4. whooping cough

what is the structure of a virus?

fragment of genetic material inside a protective protein coat

where can viruses only reproduce?

inside host cells (they damage the cell when they do this)

how do viruses work?

when inside a cell it makes it makes thousands of copies of itself.

the copies fill the host cell and burst it open.

viruses then passed into bloodstream, the airways and other routes.

what are some diseases cause by viruses?

1. flu

2. colds

3. measles

4. mumps

5. rubella

6. chicken pox


what three things can white blood cells do?

1. ingest pathogens and destroy them

2. produce antibodies- destroy particular pathogens

3. produce antitoxins - counteract the toxins realised by pathogens

what are antibodies and antitoxins?

specialised proteins

what white blood cells can produce specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen?


what two ways can antibodies neutralise pathogens?

1. bind to pathogens and damage/destroy them

2. coat pathogens so they clump together making them easy to ingest by white blood cells called phagocytes

what does each lymphocyte produce?

a specific type of antibody

(a protein that has a chemical fit to a certain antigen)

what happens when a lymphocyte with the right antibody meets the antigen?

the lymphocyte reproduces quickly making many copies of the antibody to kill the pathogen

what do vaccination cause the body to produce?

enough white blood cells to protect itself against a pathogen

why do we need vaccinations?

people can be immunised against a pathogen that are resistant to antibiotics.

are all vaccines the same?

no, different ones needed for different pathogens

what is the MMR vaccine used for?

to protect children against measles, mumps and rubella

what happens during a vaccination?

a small amount of an inactive form of pathogen is put into the body

what three things can vaccines contain?

what do they all act as?

1. live pathogens treated to make them harmless

2. harmless fragments of the pathogen

3. dead pathogens


what do vaccines do when injected into the body?

stimulate white blood cells to produce antibodies against the pathogen

what happens if the person gets infected by the pathogen later?

their body can respond in the same way as if they had the disease before

what did Ignaz Semmelweiss do?

realised the importance of cleanliness in hospitals

what did he insist on and was it effective.

- doctors washing their hans

- yes

why was his ideas ignored at the time?

people did not know that dieases were caused by pathogens that could be killed

what do painkillers do?

relieve the symptoms of an infectious disease.

what are three types of painkillers?

1. paracetamol

2. aspirin

3. morphine

how do paracetamol, aspirin and morphine work?

they block nerve impulses from the painful part of the body.

what do antibiotics?

substances that kill bacteria or stop their growth

why don't antibiotics work against viruses?

as viruses live and reproduce inside cells.


what was the the first antibiotic? who? when?

- penicillin

- alexander fleming

- 1928

how did alexander fleming discover penicillin?

he noticed that some bacteria he left in a petri dish had been killed by some naturally occurring penicillin

do all antibiotics work in the same way?

no, specific bacteria should be treated using specific antibiotics

why can some bacterial strains become resistance to antibiotics?

natural selection

( in large populations of bacteria may be some cells that are not affected by the antibiotic. these survive and reproduce making even more bacteria that are not affected by the antibiotic)

what is MRSA?

a strain of bacterium that is resistant to most antibiotics

to slow down/stop growth of resistant strains of bacterium what 2 things should we do?

1. avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics

2. complete the full course of antibiotics

what does the appearance of resistant strains of bacteria mean?

that vaccination and antibiotics may no longer work (new antibiotics must be developed as a result)

what are the main steps in the development of resistance?

1. antibiotics kill pathogens of non-resistant strain

2. resistant strain survive and reproduce

3. population of resistant strain increases

how can the development of resistant strains of bacteria be slowed down?

avoid using antibiotics for infections that are not serious e.g. mild throat infections

who discovered how to grow bacteria in a petri dish? when?

- robert koch

- 1878

what was Robert lock able to discover?

which bacteria caused certain diseases

e.g. TB and cholera

what are cultures of microorganisms?

micro-organisms that have been grown for a purpose

what are cultures of microorganisms used for?

to investigate the action of antibiotics and disinfectants

what is used so cultures stay uncontaminated?

sterile conditions

- everything sterilised

- lid of petri dish sealed by sticky tape to stop microorganisms from the air getting in

what is the maximum temp used in schools and college labs?

25 degrees, warmer temp might allow growth of pathogens to a dangerous amount