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85 Cards in this Set

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religious people who came to the New World so they could establish a "purer" church than the one in England
Halfway Covenant
allowed the children and grandchildren of members to obtain partial church membership even if they hadn't personally had a conversion experience
Roger Williams
created colony of Rhode Island; proponent of religious toleration and separation of church and state
Anne Hutchinson
Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaiming boldly facets of her own theological interpretations, some of which offended colony leadership; after a trial, she was banished from her colony
First colleges/ IV League
It is commonly regarded as the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States, following several earlier failed attempts. It was founded by Captain John Smith.
Bacon's Rebellion
About a thousand Virginians rose (including former indentured servants, poor whites and poor blacks) because they resented Virginia Governor William Berkeley's friendly policies towards the Native Americans. When Berkeley refused to retaliate for a series of Indian attacks on frontier settlements, others took matters into their own hands, attacking Indians, chasing Berkeley from Jamestown, Virginia, and torching the capital; led by Nathanial Bacon; While the farmers did not succeed in their goal of driving Native Americans from Virginia, the rebellion did result in Berkeley being recalled to England.
Navigation Acts
acts passed by British parliament increasing the dependence of colonies on the English for trade; caused great resentment in American colonies but were not strictly enforced
States that it was the duty of the gov't to strictly regulate a state's economy; crucial that a state exports more than imports, so nations don't have to rely on other nations for raw materials.
Tend to assert that God does not intervene with the affairs of human life and the natural laws of the universe.
Great awakening
religious revivals that swept the colonies in the 1740’s
Stono Rebellion
slave uprising near Charleston, SC. 100 slaves killed several plantation owners, but were killed or captured and executed.
Proclamation of 1763
issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' WarThe Proclamation in essence forbade colonists of the thirteen colonies from settling or buying land west of the Appalachian Mountains
Stamp Act
all legal documents in the colonies had to be issued on officially stamped paper. tax was imposed on all of these documents as well as on all newspapers. it was eventually repealed
Thomas Paine Common Sense
rejected the entire concept of government by monarchy. public sentiment in the colonies turned toward a desire for independence.
republican motherhood
20th century term for an attitude toward women's roles present in the emerging United States before, during, and after the American Revolution (c. 1760 to 1800). It centered on the belief that the patriots' daughters should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, in order to pass on Republican values to the next generation.
Articles of Confederation
document established first official gov't of the us, allowed powers to stay in states, limited power of federal gov't; eventually replaced by Constitution in 1788
Northwest Ordinance
bills passed in 1784,1785, and 1787 that authorized the sale of lands in the NW territory to raise money for the federal gov't
Compromise at the Constitutional Convention
aka great compromise, Roger Sherman proposed idea of bicameral form of gov't, one based on population, one based on equal representation
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams, mother of John Quincy Adams, Adams is remembered for the many letters she wrote to her husband while he stayed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during the Continental Congresses. John frequently sought the advice of Abigail on many matters, and their letters are filled with intellectual discussions on government and politics. The letters serve as eyewitness accounts of the American Revolutionary War home front
Alexander Hamilton----Financial plan
proposed that federal gov't take over all debts of individual states. Proposed creation of national bank that could provide loans to developing industries.
Shay's Rebellion
1786, Massachusetts Assembly raised taxes. Farmers took up arms, closing gov't buildings and freeing farmers from debtor's prison. Rebellion was put down by an army paid for by citizens of Boston and by lowering the taxes.
Pinckney's Treaty
agreement with Spain that opened the Mississippi River to American navigation and granted Americans the right of deposit in New Orleans; Spain agreed to the treaty because it feared that Jay's Treaty included an Anglo-American alliance.
Jefferson--- Revolution of 1800, Louisiana
Jefferson becoming president in election of 1800 became known as the revolution of 1800 because it brought an end to the Federalist Party. Jefferson purchased Louisiana Territory for 15 million from the french. It doubled size of US.
Embargo Act
Britain and France were seizing and destroying American ships to have them join the war. Jefferson's response was The Embargo Act of 1807, a law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. It was repealed in 1809, eventually led to war of 1812
Marbury v. Madison
1803 decision of John Marshall established the principle of judicial review, meaning that the Supreme Court had the power to decide if any federal or state law is unconstitutional.
Andrew Jackson- BUS, spoils system
Jackson used the spoils system, where political supporters of the winning candidate are given jobs in the government.Jackson wanted to destroy the National Bank, and in 1833, he ordered that money be removed from it and placed in state or local banks ( aka his pet banks)
Indian Removal Act, Force Bill
An Act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the states or territories, and for their removal west of the river Mississippi. ( Trail of Tears*); The Force Bill was initially enacted on March 2, 1833 to authorize U.S. President Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force necessary to enforce Federal tariffs
Tariff of Abominations
n 1828, the US Congress passed the first import Tariff, a protective tax. The tariff increased the cost of imported goods, and thus protected some of the new industries of the North. The South, whose economy was based on the export of the cotton and did not manufacture significant products opposed the tariff, as a result, the tariff became known as the "tariff of Abominations".
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
The document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede. It stated also Calhoun's Doctrine of nullification, i.e., the idea that a state has the right to reject federal law, first introduced by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in their Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
John C. Calhoun
Great Nullifer, proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the south its right as a minority view that presidents elected, one from south and one from north.
Henry Clay
Came up with the American System; founder of American Colonization Society
American System
Henry Clay proposed the American System as a pan that was to make America less economically dependent on Europe by encouraging the production of goods in the US that had been imported. Important would be the creation of a Second national Bank.
Lowell System
hinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the process, and the workers were almost all single young farm women, who worked for a few years and then returned home to be housewives.
Hartford Convention
During the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed. The end of the war — with a return to the status quo ante bellum — disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places.
Monroe Doctrine
proclamation that countries of the Western Hemisphere are not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by an European powers.
American Colonization Society
The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America), founded in 1816, was the primary vehicle to support the "return" of free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa.
Seneca Falls Convention
Convention for women advocates at Seneca Falls to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women. "All men and women are created equal" -Declaration of Sentiments
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies.
Polk and Manifest Destiny
Manifest destiny was the concept that was that it was the God-given mission of the US to expand westward. Polk becoming president showed that manifest destiny was the most important issue facing America at the time. Polk was a huge supporter of expansionism
Mexican Cession
The Mexican Cession of 1848 is a historical name in the United States for the region of the present day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848
Alexis de Tocqueville
he explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies
Mexican Cession
The Mexican Cession of 1848 is a historical name in the United States for the region of the present day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848
Alexis de Tocqueville
he explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies
Ostend Manifesto
The Ostend Manifesto was a document written in 1854 that described the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain while implying that the U.S. should declare war if Spain refused
Frederick Law Olmsted
He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture; helped design central park
Hudson River School
The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the 1830s and 1840s in the New England region of the United States as a protest to the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School
Ralph Waldo Emerson
led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States.
Henry David Thoreau-- Walden
leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state.
Erie Canal
It was the first transportation system between the eastern seaboard (New York City) and the western interior (Great Lakes) of the United States that did not require portage, was faster than carts pulled by draft animals, and cut transport costs by about 95%
William Lloyd Garrison
known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.
Stephen Douglas
He lost to the Republican Party's candidate, Abraham Lincoln, whom he had defeated two years earlier in a Senate contest following a famed series of debates; Douglas supported the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision of 1857, and denied that it was part of a Southern plot to introduce slavery in the Northern states
Popular Sovereignty
the principle that the legitimacy of the state is created and sustained by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing settlers in those territories to determine through Popular Sovereignty if they would allow slavery within each territory. The act was designed by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois
Wilmot Proviso
The Wilmot Proviso, one of the major events leading to the Civil War, would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future, including the area later known as the Mexican Cession, but which some proponents construed to also include the disputed lands in south Texas and New Mexico east of the Rio Grande. Never got passed
Emancipation Proclamation/ Battle of Antietam
proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the ten states then in rebellion, thus applying to 3.1 million of the 4 million slaves in the U.S. at that time; was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Union soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties.
Republican Party and slavery
Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP (Grand Old Party). The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S. political spectrum and is considered center-right, in contrast to the center-left Democratic Party.
Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who fled the Southern United States for Kansas in 1879 and 1880
Wounded Knee
massacre in 1890
Dawes Act
The Dawes Act, adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide the land into allotments for individual Indians.
New/Old Immigrants
Old immigrants: came from northern or western Europe, were Protestant, were literate and skilled, came over as families, were quick to assimilate, were experienced in the ways of democracy, had some money in their pockets, were tall and fair. New immigrants were from came from southern or eastern Europe, were Catholic, Orthodox, Jewish, and essentially the exact opposite of old immigrants
Know Nothing Party
party developed in 1850sthat claimed that the other political parties and the entire political process was corrupt, that immigrants were destroying economic base of America by working for low wages, and Catholics wanted to destroy American democracy.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Vertical and horizontal integration
Horizontal integration is the process of merging similar industries, industries that produce similar products. Horizontal integration would include tactics like buying competing companies that produce the same goods as you do. Vertical integration is the process of buying out suppliers of that particular industry.
Robber barons/ Captains of Industry
"Captain of industry" was a term originally used in the United Kingdom during the Industrial Revolution describing a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributes positively to the country in some way.
This may have been through increased productivity, expansion of markets, providing more jobs, or acts of philanthropy.[1] This contrasts with robber baron, a term used to describe a business leader using political means to achieve their ends.
Railroads as America's first big business
Railroads were used for just about anything and everything, such as the transportation of people, animals, goods, etc. It made trade and travel between the states much easier which is why it was america's first big business
Social Darwinism
It especially refers to notions of struggle for existence being used to justify social policies which make no distinction between those able to support themselves and those unable to support themselves
National Labor Union
The National Labor Union (NLU) was the first national labor federation in the United States. Founded in 1866 and dissolved in 1873, it paved the way for other organizations, such as the Knights of Labor. he National Labor Union sought instead to bring together all of the national labor organizations in existence, as well as the "eight-hour leagues" established to press for the eight-hour day, to create a national federation that could press for labor reforms and help found national unions in those areas where none existed
Knights of Union
he Knights promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected Socialism and radicalism, demanded the eight-hour day, and promoted the producers ethic of republicanism.
American Federation of Labor
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio in December 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers of the Cigar Makers' International Union was elected president of the Federation at its founding convention and was reelected every year except one until his death in 1924.
Bread and Butter Unionism
The AFL(American Federation Labor) would be considered a "Bread and Butter" union because they sought to receive higher wages, minimize hours, and improve working conditions
Molly Maguires
The Molly Maguires were members of an Irish-American secret society, whose members consisted mainly of coal miners; he Molly Maguires were accused of kidnapping and other crimes, largely because of the allegations of one powerful industrialist (Franklin B. Gowen), and the testimony of one Pinkerton detective (James McParland).
Eugene V. Debs
American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
Jacob Riis
Riis experienced poverty and became a police reporter writing about the quality of life in the slums. He attempted to alleviate the bad living conditions of poor people by exposing their traditionalism to middle class ridicule.
William Randolph Hearst and Joseph
he acquired The New York Journal and engaged in a bitter circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World which led to the creation of yellow journalism — sensationalized stories of dubious veracity
Pulitzer introduced the techniques of "new journalism" to the newspapers he acquired in the 1880s and became a leading national figure in the Democratic Party. He crusaded against big business and corruption. In the 1890s the fierce competition between his World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal introduced yellow journalism and opened the way to mass circulation newspapers that depended on advertising revenue and appealed to the reader with multiple forms of news, entertainment, and advertising.
extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy
Yellow Journalism
type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide impact; it was most famously presented in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890)
Platt Amendment
The Platt Amendment of 1901 was an amendment replacing the earlier Teller Amendment. It[1] stimulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations. The Amendment ensured U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs and gave legal standing (in U.S law) to U.S. claims to certain territories on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
Roosevelt Corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary is a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that was articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union Address in 1904. The corollary states that The United States will intervene in conflicts between European Nations and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly.
Populist Party
it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 the Democrats endorsed their presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan. The terms "populist" and "populism" are commonly used for anti-elitist appeals in opposition to established interests and mainstream parties
William Jennings Bryan "Cross of Gold"
Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity. He decried the gold standard, concluding the speech, "you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold".[1] Bryan's address helped catapult him to the Democratic Party's presidential nomination; it is considered one of the greatest political speeches in American history.
Booker T. Washington --> Atlanta ( Compromise Speech)
Washington attained national prominence for his Atlanta Address of 1895, which attracted the attention of politicians and the public, making him a popular spokesperson for African-American citizens. He built a nationwide network of supporters in many black communities, with black ministers, educators and businessmen composing his core supporters.