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78 Cards in this Set

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Bacons Rebellion

1676


· Indentured servants attacked Indians/ got mad bc they didn’t get whatthey were promised at the end of their indenture


· Caused increase in slavery because it demonstrated that slavery wasbetter because indentured servants were more trouble than they were worth

Diaz-->whered he go-->where was he from-->date

1487


from Portugal


Rounds southern tip of Africa

Columbus ->whered he go-->where was he from-->date

1492


from Spain


First to explore western hemisphere

de Gama

1497


from Portugal


sea route to India via sailing around Africa

Cabot

1497


England


explores Newfoundland & Nova Scotia

Vespucci

1499


from Spain


explores coast of south america

Cabral

1500


from Portugal


Portugal's claim on Brazil



Cortes

1519


from Spain


conquest of Aztecs

Magellan

1519


from Spain


circumnavigates the world

Pizarro

1531


from Spain


conquest of Peru (the incas)

Jamestown

1607

founded by Virginia Company



first permanent english colony


big on public punishment

Plymouth

1620


Founded by pilgrims


Mayflower compact


Protestants(Predestined fate to heaven/hell) --> "Lowchurch”


V intolerant

Massachusetts Bay

1630


founded by Mass Bay Co


puritans


CITY ON A HILL


families, kids, church=center of town




--> Ann Hutchinson & Williams (pay indians for land, separate church and state) thought they were being hypocritical --> Toldpuritans they believed in “doctrine ofworks”-->do works/acts in life thatdetermined fate, but puritans also claimed to have a predestined fate-->exiled

Ann HutchinsonMaryland

1634


founded by lord baltimore


catholics

rhode island

1636


roger williams


religious toleration

connecticut

1636


thomas hooker


fundamental orders of connecticut

new york

1664

founded by Duke of York


under dutch control as new amsterdam from 1621-64




Pennsylvania

1681


founded by William Penn


Quakers!



Georgia

1732


founded by Oglethorpe


buffer against Spanish Florida

Ann Hutchinson

Mass Bay


c. 1630


thought puritans were being hypocritical bc of doctrine of works

Halfway covenant

1662- Churchmembership declined --> offered half a$$ way to join church


Puritanism declinedfairly quickly


(mass bay)

French and Indian War

seven years war


1754–1763·


BRITAIN v. French & Ind




french & indians = allied


Switch fromFrench land to British ·


Indiansbecome dependent upon British empire Indians loseability to play European powers against each other :/


Antinomianism

puritan beliefs that stressed god's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation


anne hutch!!

First Great Awakening

1730s & 1740s


George Whitefield


Jonathan Edwards


religious pluralism


all Protestant denominations were legitamate


do ya thang!

great migration

1630-1642


helllla ppl came to New england & puritans esp. (in mass bay)

joint-stock company

these companies funded overseas expeditions, ex = Jamestown, New Amsterdam

who funded New Amsterdam

Dutch West India Company

Mercantilism

economic policy that help that the strength of a nation=based on amount of silver and gold it had


trade generates wealth


COLONIES EXIST FOR MOTHER COUNTRY

middle passage

sea route for slaves from west coast of africa to western hemisphere

puritans (word origin)

wanted to purify church of england

triangular trade

new england shipped rum to west coast of africa for slaves which were sent to west indies for molasses that was sold in new England

name 3 reasons for the start of the american reovlution

1. british empire racking up war debts --> increased taxes on colonies


2. western land issues (pontiac's rebellion, proclamation line)


3. exercising greater control in colonies

pontiac's rebellion

1763


(prophet=neolin)(newabout this revolution: all Native Americans should unite VS colonies,pan-Indian identity) forces British to draw line

proclamation line

1763


banned all settlement past Appalachian Mountains



example of british tryna exercise greater control in colonies

townshend acts


sugar/stamp/currecy acts


quartering act

Sugar Act

1764


stricter enforcement on trade regulations

currency act

1764


colonies prohibited from issuing paper money

stamp act & colonial reaction

1765


tax on printed materials/documents


reaction=virginia resolves, stamp act congress, sons of liberty

quartering act

1765


colonies had to provide houses for british troops

townshend acts & reaction

1767

external taxes on colonial imports


reaction=non-importation agreements, Letters of a Farmer in Penn.

tea act & reaction

1773


monopoly for east india company for tea sold in colonies


reaction=boston tea party

coercive acts/intolerable acts & reaction

1774


british response to boston tea party


Gave additional power to British appointed leaders in thecoloniesIncreased military presence in Boston Gave military officers right to forcibly quarter theirsoldiers in citizen’s housesColonies view this as excessive act of aggression


convinced america 2 BE FREE

Quebec Act

· Response to Boston tea party · Expanded Quebec’s border into Ohio River Valley· Grants toleration of Catholicismànotpopular because of fear/bigotry with Catholicism

Continental Congress

· Response to intolerable acts · 1774, Philly· Key colonial leaders met· Preparing for war


· Approved “Suffolk Resolves” (withhold taxes, prepare forwar)o boycott of British goods

“Suffolk Resolves”

(withhold taxes, prepare for war) boycott of British goods

Committees of Safety

· Against ethics of liberty· Crucial for revolution to have non-elites · Enforce boycott, act on the ground · Power of local committee, not official appointed government· Broader political participation allowed (non elites)


time of american rev.

Second Continental Congress

· First CC promised that their colonial demands weren’t met,they’d meet againàso theydid· 1775 · During times where British soldiers were fightingMassachusetts colonists· Decided to create American army · Printed money so that they could pay for it· Appoints George Washington as leader · Still not yetdeclaring independence

SouthCarolina Regulators

· Wealthywestern farmers who want better representation · Regulateland titles· Want moregovernment on the periphery to establish law and order

NorthCarolina Regulators

· Smallfarmers· Much moreradical· Refuse topay taxes, kidnap local officials, disrupt court proceedings · Saw colonialgovernment as corrupt, benefitting wealthy so they also want a much morerepresentational government that benefitting them more · 8,000farmers · Suppressedby militia in 1771 · Worrisome toelite

revolution v. war for independence

Revolution:· Social/politicalhierarchy that gets overthrown/flipped upside-down


Warof Independence: · Leave socialpyramid intact except for British elite/tip top of pyramid

boston massacre

1770


Britishsoldiers were stationed in Boston to make sure ships didn’t violate traderegulations. Snowball fight (Bostonians vs. soldiers-àarmed confrontation) kills 5 Bostonians. Judge took the sideof the soldiers because he was an elitist. Defended by John Adams who isconcerned with the unruly lower class. Paul Revere produces propaganda pieceportraying it as cold-blooded massacre, which shifts public perception ofBritish.

concord & lexington

· Two battles//towns that marked major physical violence of American Revolution· April 19 1775· British had wanted to take weapons from Americans who werefighting · e· Trying to seize weapons · Push for independence not like sgooo

Continental Association

1774 · Authorized by CC· Call for total boycott, become economically independent· Largely enforced (except for NY)

olive branch petition

1775


adopted by the Second Continental Congress

bunker hill

1775


??

treaty f alliance

1778


The Treaty of Alliance with France: Franco-AmericanTreaty, was the defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised military support in case of attack by British forces indefinitely into the future.

treaty of paris

1783


ended the American Revolutionary War.

land ordinance of 1785

· Regulated land sales in the region north of the Ohio River,which came to be known as the Old Northwest.· Land would be sold at $1/acre in 640-acre lots.-->but noone person had $640 just to spend· Land gets bought up by land companies & speculatorsàthen sold off in smaller parts · Essentially government giving people (land companies, etc)help who didn’t necessarily need it even though it makes land more accessibleeventually

northwest ordinance

1787


· Calls for3-5 new states · Slavery isbanned in these states, but people bring slaves over and pretend it wasvoluntary · Had to haveconsent from Native Americans to take their land/purchase it

Shay’s rebellion

· 1786


Takes placein Massachusetts· Debt- riddenfarmers who don’t want their land taken away because they haven’t paid theirdebts · Eventually stopped by the state militia

loyalist

those who stayed loyal to britain in american revolution

natural rights

enlightenment=yaas natural rights


governemnt shouldnt be able to violate


jefferson

virtual representation

americans didnt feel represented in parliament, britain argued that they were because members of parliament represented all engishmen in the empire

whig ideology

idea that concentrated power leads to corruption

how did constitution set up government

legislative (congress)


executive (VP and P)


judicial branch (supreme court)

Pro-Federalists

· Rural areasclosely tied to commercial marketplaces · Urbanartisans, laborers, sailors all seek strongereconomy through strong federal state · Substantialproperty holders More organized, coherent, agree on the samethings


hamilton's economic plan (pro national debt)

Anti Federalists

· State levelpoliticians fearing loss of prestige · Sam Adams,John Hancock, Patrick Henry· Opponents/proponentsof slavery who either feared the constitution protected slavery too much or toolittle · Those whofeared merchant/creditor domination · Small farmersin rural areas · Democraticgovernment works best on a small/local scale· Nationalgovernment would be inherently less representative · Lacked Billof Rights · Small,backwoods farmers Conflicting viewsLoosely organized

virginia plan

was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch.


madison


1787

3/5 compromise

1787


how to count slaves?! (south=yes count them so theyd get more representation, north=no)


blacks=3/5 person's representation

federalist papers

85 articles


1788


Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution.

bill of rights

first 10 amendments


freedom of speech, press, religionthe right to bear arms, and protection againstunjust criminal procedures


presentedto congress by Madison and ratified by the states in 1791.


concrete version of unalienable rights

bank of the united states



The Bank of the United States was a part ofHamilton’s 5 point economic plan for the country and was modeled after the Bankof England. It was a private corporation, not a branch of government, whichwould hold public fund, issue currency, and make loans to the government whennecessary, as well as giving some profit to its stockholders


1791

whiskey rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion took place in 1794 and reinforced theFederalist’s ideas that democracy and freedom shouldn’t be kept in the hands ofordinary citizens. The Whiskey Rebellion was when backcountry Pennsylvaniafarmers sought to block collection of the next tax on distilled spirits.

jay's treaty

Jay’s Treaty: Jay’s Treaty was created by John Jay, chiefjustice at the time, and was created after the British seized hundreds ofAmerican ships trading with the French West Indies and kidnapped soldiers toserve in their navy (impressment). Jay’s Treaty was negotiated in 1794 andresulted in Britain agreeing to abandon outposts on the western frontier (whichit was supposed to do in 1783). The United States agreed to favor treatment toBritish imported goods, which cancelled the American-French alliance andrecognized British naval and economic supremacy. The effect that Jay’s Treaty had is that itoutlined political divisions in the US and led directly to the formation of anorganized opposition party.

XYZ affair

1797, when the United States had claimed the right to tradenonmilitary goods with both Britain and France, but both countries seizedAmerican ships with impunity. In 1797 American diplomats went to Paris tonegotiate a treaty, but the French officials demanded bribes beforenegotiations took place. This ruined the former alliance, yet peace wasnegotiated in 1800. The ‘XYZ’ aspect refers to how Adams substituted theletters for French diplomats’ names.

alien and sedition acts

1798


Adams administration


caused by the federalists wanting to silence their critics withinpamphlets and literary works. There was a Naturalization Act that extended therequirement for immigrants who wanted to become American citizens. The Alienact allowed the deportation of persons from abroad deemed dangerous by federalauthorities and the Sedition Act, set to expire in 1801, authorized theprosecution of any public assembly/publication that was critical of thegovernment.

kentucky & virginia resolutions

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions took place whenMadison and Jefferson drafted up resolutions that opposed the Sedition Act,which they believed was unconstitutional. Virginia and Kentucky both adoptedthese resolutions, which called on the courts to defend the constitutionalrights set forth before.

election of 1800

outcome in part due to 3/5


John Adams v. Jefferson


Adams would have won if slaves hadnt been counted