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41 Cards in this Set

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What is the end of the classical era defined by?

changes in Asia, northern Africa, and the Mediterranean

3 questions why classical civilizations declined?

1) Why did these civilizations decline?


2) Why did different regions see different patterns of decline with different results?


3) What was the significance of these developments?

Basic themes of classical civilizations

expansion and integration

order of fall


1) China


2) Mediterranean


3) India

What did all classical civilizations involve?

territorial expansion and related efforts to integrate the new territories


Main thinkers:

Confucious/Laozi, Buddha, Socrates

How did nomadic societies play a vital role?

(particularly in central Asia) they linked and occasionally disrupted classical civilizations

Axum

kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands, replaced Meroe in first century CE, received strong influence from Arabian peninsula, eventually converted to Chrisitanity

Ethiopia

a Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of king Lalaibela, retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa

Silk Road

The most famous of the trading routes established by pastoral nomads connecting the Chinese, Indian, Persian, and Mediterranean civilizations, transmitted goods and ideas among civilizations

Sahara

desert running across northern Africa, separates the Mediterranean coast from southern Africa

Shintoism

religion of early Japanese culture, worshipped many gods and spirits associated with the natural world, offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits

Olmec Culture

cultual tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c 1200 BCE, featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems

Teotihuacan

site of classical culture in central Mexico, urban center with important religious functions, supported by intensive agriculture in surrounding regions

Maya

classical culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central American contemporary with Teotihuacan, extended over broad region, featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and math systems, highly developed religion

Inca

group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures, term also used for leader of empire

Polynesian

islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island --isolated

What did a combination of internal weakness and invasion lead to?

important changes in China, then in India

When did classical civilizations collapse?

between 200-600 CE

Yellow Turbans

Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 CE in China promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic

Sui

dynasty that succeeded the Han in China, emerged from strong rulers in North China

Tang

dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 CE, more stable than previous dynasty

Rajput

regional princes in India, controlled small states and emphasized military power

Devi

mother goddess of Hinduism

Islam

major world religion having its origins in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula, meaning literally "submission", based on Muhammad's prophecy

Allah

supreme God in monotheistic Islam

decline in Rome was ___

complex involving a mix of internal and external factors

What developed differently after the fall of Rome?

the eastern and western portions of the empire

What is the key to the process of decline?

a set of general, triggered by a cycle of plagues that could not be prevented, resulting in a rather mechanistic spiral that steadily worsened

Byzantine Empire

eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire, retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek, capital = Constantinople

Justinian

leader (of Byzantine Empire) under him, eastern emperors tried to recapture the whole heritage of Rome

Augustine

influential church father and the ologican, champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in the long term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination

Coptic

church that split from north African Christianity

What did the period of classical decline see?

rapid expansion of Buddhism and Christianity

Religious change had:

wider cultural, social, and political implications

Bodhisattvas

Buddhist holy men, built up spiritual merits during their lifetimes, prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness

Mahayana

Chinese version of Buddhism, placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savior

Jesus of Nazareth

prophet and teacher among the Jews, believed by Christians to be the Messiah

Paul

one of the first Christian missionaries, moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law, greek language in the church

Pope

bishop of Rome, head of the Christian Church

Benedict

founder of monasticism in what had been the Western half of the Roman Empire, established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century