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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
refers to a political system in which there are local (territorial, regional, provincial, state, or municipal) units of government, as well as a national government, that can make final decisions with respect to at least some governmental activites. Example: An example would be the freeways. They are owned and operated by the states, but the federal government sets down some basic guidelines that all states must follow and also provides funding.
Dual Federalism
is a doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate. Example: Interstate commerce which Congress can regulate, and intrastate commerce, which only states could regulate and that Court could tell which was which
Money given by the national government to states. Example would be Medicaid
Categorical grants
Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building a park. Categorical Grants two types

* 90% of grants are categorical

* formula grants (executive branch)
* sets criteria if you met criteria automatically get funding
* Project grants
* states can get grants through competition
* Obama's concept Race to the Top (executive branch setting criteria)
* education plan
* created a point system (500 points)
* rewarded schools that did better than other
* States had to apply for this competition
* 1.4 billion dollars for race to the top
* states had to compete
* layer cake its doled out but marble cake there was competition
* This year skipped state level and now it is at local level
Formula grants
formula grants (executive branch)

* sets criteria if you met criteria automatically get funding
like Medicad, Food Stamps, Head-start
Block Grants
Block Grants (Executive branch) but has to be approved
* is a set/chunk of money set aside with broad guidelines as to how the money is spent.
* a block grant is more defined than revenue sharing
* says how the money will be used a title for what the money is used for
* then the state can go out and use the money for that reasons and experiment with the money
Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants. Its more punitive. They do not have to give the states money. Waivers can allow states to delay time when they have to meet standards
Unfunded Mandate
Terms set by the national government that states must meet. States receive no funding or monetary reward for following the standards.
Unitary System
A unitary system is when the power is centralized and the state or regional governments derive authority from central government. States and localities are dependent on the central government's will. Example: UK
The effort to transfer the responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal government to the states.
"necessary and proper" clause
Section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the constitution. Founders did not want to create list of everything the Federal government could do.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Maryland taxed the Bank of the United states and courts reviewed it. The Constitution's "necessary and proper" clause permites Congress to take actions (in thi case, to create a national bank) when it is essential to a power that Congress has (in this case, managing the currency).
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
The Constitution's commerce clause gives the national government exclusive power to regulate interstate commerce
United States v. Lopez (1995)
The national government's power under the commerce clause does not permit it to regulate matters not directly related to interstate commerce (in this case, banning firearms in a school zone).
Revenue Sharing
Federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states. Federal government would give money to the states from federal taxes. States could spend money however they wanted. Reagan ended the program.
Implied Powers
Implied powers, in the United States, are those powers authorized by a legal document (from the Constitution) which, while not stated, seem to be implied by powers expressly stated. When George Washington asked Alexander Hamilton to defend the constitutionality of the First Bank of the United States against the protests of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph, Hamilton produced what has now become the classic statement for implied powers. This comes a lot from the "necessary and proper clause" and is a loose interpretation of the constitution.
Cooperative federalism
Cooperative federalism is a concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately but more or less equally (such as the nineteenth century's dual federalism) or clashing over a policy in a system dominated by the national government. For example having the drinking age at 21 is a the states giving up their power for prefered treatment
Commerce Clause
The Commerce Clause is an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3). The clause states that the United States Congress shall have power "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes." Courts and commentators have tended to discuss each of these three areas of commerce as a separate power granted to Congress. Dispute exists within the courts as to the range of powers granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause. As noted below, the clause is often paired with the Necessary and Proper Clause, the combination used to take a broad, expansive perspective of these powers.
Redistricting is the process of drawing United States electoral district boundaries, often in response to population changes determined by the results of the decennial census. Often though these boundaries are re-drawn to give an advantage to the current party that is in control. Make sure that people are represented equally. Have political purposes.
Project Grant
A categorical grant in which funding can only be recieved if you do well in a competition. States competing. Obamas Race to the Top