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25 Cards in this Set

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A system developed by various European States to guarantee a favorable balance of trade with other European Nations or with other American Colonies

Adam Smith

Improved the Laissez-Faire as well as being a huge definer of Capitalism. Went against Mercantilism.

Francis Bacon

Started the Scientific and inductive method. Believed that knowledge in power

Rene Descartes

Questions everything, including reality itself(Cartesian Dualism)

Invented analytical geometry

Discourse on Method

Written by Rene Descartes, defines 2 types of matter, thinking substance(Everything to do with the mind) and extended substance(physical world). This division became known as Cartesian Dualism

Nicolaus Copernicus

Created the idea of the Heliocentric System. Went against the church to prove his ideas.

Galileo Galilei

Made many experiments on gravity and inertia. Proved that Earth was not center of universe and refined the telescope.

Isaac Newton

Put Kepler's and Galileo's ideas together in order to create the laws of motion and gravity.

Also invented calculus

Johanne's Kepler

Discovered 3 planetary laws of motion that helped Newton understand gravity

Seven Years' War

Competition for colonies between Britain and France. France lost and Britain was solidified as a world power.


The idea of investing money into ventures in order to make profit.


Believed in a natural law and Human reason alone could answer all the questions in life. Prayers and miracles violated natural order to them.

Scientific Revolution

A time of Scientific breakthroughs in astronomy and physics

The Enlightenment

A time where philosophers(Philisophes) argued that Humans could answer all questions through science and reason

Madame Geoffrin

Hosted a very lively French Salon and supported in the publishing of The Encyclopedia


A leader of the Enlightenment, he was tolerant of religions and believed that a monarchy was the best form of government. He would listen to all viewpoints on a topic and was supported by Frederick the Great.

Jean Jacques Rousseau

The founder of the romantic Movement, he put an emphasis on letting everyone express their emotions.

Baron de Montesquieu

A large supporter of checks and balances, he believed that the powers must be separated

Denis Diderot

Wrote a compilation of social and political critique that popularized the ideas of the philosophes in his book, Encyclopedia

Francois Quesnay

Led the physiocrats and supported the laissez-faire, he wanted to remove restrictions on free trade, such as tariffs


Believers of the Laissez-Faire and wanted to remove restrictions on free trade, such as tariffs

Middle Passage

The journey taken by slaves from West Africa to the West Indies

Triangular Trade

Shipping goods from Britain to West Africa in exchange for slaves, and slaves being shipped to West indies for sugar, rum, etc.

Plantation System

The division of land into smaller, private units(usually for slavery)

Mary Wollstonecraft

A feminist and writer who wanted equal rights for women.