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44 Cards in this Set

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science
an attempt to discover order in the natural world and use that knowledge to describe what is likely to happen in nature.
what are the three important features of the scientific process?
skepticism
reproducibility
peer review
scientific theory
when evidence supports a particular hypo, then it becomes a theory.

verified, credible, and widely accepted scientific hypothesis that is supported by extensive evidence.
scientific/natural law
description of what happens in nature over and over again in the same way.

ex: second LAW of thermodynamics

if data is accurate, then law cannot be broken.
second law of thermodynamics
heat travels from hot to cold. e: touch a stove.
multi-variable analysis
running mathematical models on high-speed computers to analyze the interactions of many variables without having to carry out traditional controlled experiments.
define Inductive reasoning.
what else is it known as?
measurements and observations -> general statements or conclusions.

bottom-up reasoning.
specific to general.
define deductive reasoning
and what is it known as?
using logic to arrive to a specific conclusion based on a generalization or premise.

top-down reasoning.
general to specific.
syllogism
and how long does it stay accurate?
a series of logically connected statements.

stays accurate as long as the premise stays correct and we do not use faulty logic to come to the conclusion.
frontier science
not been fully confirmed ye, "breakthroughs" and oftenly highly debated between scientists.
sound science/ consensus science
widely accepted by experts.
junk science

and why is frontier science not considered it?
scientific results or hypothesis presented as sound science but not having undergone the rigors of the peer review process.

frontier science is not considered junk science because its tentative and going through the review process.
system
set of components that function and interact in some regular and theoretically understandable manner.
what are some key components of systems?

there are three.
inputs: from environments
outputs: to the environement
flows/through puts: the system at certain times.
define mathematical models and the three steps of making them.
one or more equations used to describe the behavior and to describe how the system is likely to behave.

1. make a guess, write down a few trial equations.

2. compute the likely behavior of the systems implied by the equations.

3. compare the system's projected behavior with observations and behavior projected by mental models , existing data, laws, theories, etc.
positive feedback loop
giving birth, interest in a bank, both variables go in the same direction.
negative/ corrective feedback loop
change in to the opposite direction. way of balancing, like it trying to control your body temperature in the heat by sweating.
define the two types of matter
elements-building blocks of matter that build up everything else

compounds-two or more different elements held together in fixed proportions by chemical bonds.
atomic number
number of protons.
mass number
amount of proton and neutrons
isotopes of an element
same atomic number, so same amount of protons, but different amount of neutrons so different mass number.
metals
lose electrons and become positive
electron givers
give away their electrons and become positive. metals for example.
non metals
electron receivers
they gain electrons and therefore become negative. the receive electrons.
ionic compounds
compounds that contain oppositional charged ions
covalent/ molecular compounds
molecules of uncharged atoms
what kind of bond makes up water?
a covalent or molecular bond between atoms.
what kind of bonds do organic compounds share?
covalent bonds between the molecules.
relationships within the body
nucleotides
genes
chromosomes
all in nucleus
four states of matter
physical:
liquid
solid
gas

other:
plasma
plasma-

and when does it occur?
high energy mixture of roughly equal numbers of positive and negative ions.

when energy is applied to strip of the electrons from a nucleus.

MOST ABUNDANT FORM OF MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE.
matter quality
measure of how useful a form of matter is to us, based on it availability and concentration
material efficiency
resource productivity
total amount of material needed to produce each unit of goods and services.
energy
ability to work and transfer heat.
electromagnetic radiation
travels in the form of a wave. change between electric and magnetic fields.
ionizing radiation
enough energy to knock electrons from their atoms and change them to positive ions.

the highly reactive electrons and ions then ruin the bodies natural systems and cause illnesses.
nonionizing radiation
does not contain enough energy to create ions, no proof whether it is harmful to humans.
heat
total kinetic energy of all moving atoms, ions, or molecules within a given substance.
temperature
average speed of motion of the atoms, electrons, molecules, in the amount.
energy quality
measure of the energy source's ability to do work.
physical change
chemical composition is not altered.
three factors determine the severity of pollutant's harmful effects.
-chemical nature
-concentration
-persistence
four categories of persistence
degradable/ non persistent -breaks down entirely.

biodegradable pollutants- living organisms break them down.

slowly degradable/ persistent- takes decades or longer to finally degrade.

non degradable- cannot be broken down.
alpha particles versus beta particles
alpha particles- two protons and two neutrons, flying matter

beta- high speed electrons.