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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some of the ways the skin performs it's main function? (protection)
* Insulates & cushions
* Protects from mechanical, chemical, thermal & bacterial damage
* Prevents water loss
* Regulates heat loss
What are other functions of the skin (aside from protection)?
* Excretion
* Metabolism
* Cutaneous sense
What are the main regions of the skin?
* Epidermis (superficial)
* Dermis

Hypodermis/superficial fascia is right below the dermis, but not considered part of the skin.
What two types of tissue is the skin made of?
Epithelial and connective
Define the epidermis structurally.
* Avascular
* Keratinized
* Stratified squamous epithelium
* 4 or 5 distinct layers
* 4 cell types
Describe keratin
Fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its durability and protective capabilities

Most abundant epidermal cell.
What is a freckle?
A concentration of melanin in one spot.
What is a Langerhans' cell?
A phagocytic cell found in the epidermis that plays a role in immunity.
What are Merkel cells?
Together with sensory nerve endings, they form sensitive touch receptors called Merkel discs.
What are the five layers of the epidermis?
Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum

(deep to superficial)
Which layer of the epidermis has cells that are constantly undergoing mitotic cell division?
Stratum basale (stratum 'germinativum')
Which two layers of the epidermis receive adequate nutrition via diffusion from the dermis?
Stratum basale & stratum spinosum.
Which layer of the epidermis is NOT present in regions of thin skin?
The stratum lucidum.
Which epidermal layer has 20 to 30 cell layers?
Stratum corneum.
Dermis is which type of tissue?
Dense irregular connective tissue.
What are the two layers of the dermis?
Papillary and reticular (from superficial to deep)
What is responsible for finger prints?
The dermal papillae (of the papillary layer of the dermis). They attach the dermis to the epidermis.
What are Pacinian corpuscles?
Pressure receptors found in the reticular layer of the dermis.
What are Meissner's corpuscles?
Pain and touch receptors found in the papillary layer of the dermis.
What leads to wrinkling in old age?
The number of elastic fibers decreases and the subcutaneous layer loses fat.
What happens to the skin in a cool enviroment?
The arterioles constrict so that blood bypasses the dermal capillary networks temporarily.
What three things is skin color a result of?
The amount of melanin and carotene in the skin, and the degree of oxygenation of the blood.
Where are hairs NOT found on the human body?
Thick-skinned areas, parts of external genitalia, nipples, lips.
What are the two types of cutaneous glands?
Sebaceous and sweat
What are eccrine glands?
Sweat glands that produce clear perspiration of water, salts & urea. They are important in heat regulation.
What are apocrine glands?
Sweat glands that secrete a milky protein & fat rich substance. Found primarily in the axillary & genital areas. Like pheromone glands of other animals.