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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Calvin Cycle
-Produces Glucose
-Converts CO2 to Sugars
-In the Stoma (Liquid)
-Name: C3 Photosynthesis, "Dark Reaction"
-Light not directly involved; needed to make ATP and NADPH
-6CO2 + 18ATP + 12NADPH = 1 GLUCOSE
Sugar Cyclical Process
C + ATP + NADPH => G3P
-Used to make glucose and organic molecules
-Takes 6 Turns or 6CO2 Molecules to make 1 GLUCOSE
Steps for Calvin Cycle
1 - Carbon Fixation
2 - Energy Consumption and Redox
3 - Release of G3p Molecules
4 - Regeneration of RuBP
Carbon Fixation
-6CO2 + 6RuBP => 12 PGA
- . +.-.-.-.-. => .-.-.
-This is six reactions together
-Ribisco: enzyme
Energy Consumption and Redox
-12 PGA [Reduced]

-12 G3P *Full of Energy* (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate)
-PGA to G3P is Different Arrangement
Release of 2 G3P Molecules
2 G3P => 1 Glucose
.-.-. = .-.-.-.-.-.
-Used to fuel cellular respiration, make starch, cellulose, and other organic molecules
Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate
-3 Carbon Sugar
- G3P
Ribulose Biphosphate
-5 Carbon Sugar
- RuBP
Regeneration of RuBP
-Recycle, takes more energy
-Remaining 10 G3P Molecules

-Series of chemical rxns to rearrange atoms
Normal Conditions
-C3 Photosynthesis
-Use CO2 from air to make 3-C compound PGA through Calvin Cycle
Hot, Dry- causes plants to close stomata to prevent water loss, less CO2 and O2 movement, decrease in photosynthesis.
Ribisco Enzyme
-Concentration of O2 increases, (step one of calvin) uses the oxygen inside of CO2.
-Yields no sugar molecules
-Creates 2-Carbon product that gets broken down because it is unuseable
-Forces peroxisomes in cell to break it down
C4 Plants
-C4 Photosynthesis
-Hot, Dry Climates
-Specialties to conserve water and prevent photorespiration
-Keeps Stomata closed most of time
-Enzyme: PEP Carboxylase (phosphoenolpyruvate), unable to fix O2, no photorespiration
C4 Photosynthesis Steps
1. PEP Carboxylase Fixes CO2
- PEP + CO2 => OAA
2. Oxaloacetic Acid Converted to malate
- OOA => Malate (Shuttled to Bundle Sheath Cells, Barely O2)=> Pyruvate + CO2
3. CO2 Enters Into Calvin Cycle
4. Pyruvate converted back to PEP Carboxylase
CAM Plants
-Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
-Very Dry Climate
-Night: Stomata Open
-PEP Carboxylase =>OOA=>Malic Acid (Shuttled to Vacuole)
-Day: Stomata Close, malic Acid =>OAA=>CO2, Enters Calvin Cycle