Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/11

Click to flip

11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Antibiotics are and meet your class of natural and synthetic pharmaceutical agents that killed or inhibit the growth of infection, causing microorganisms (bacteria)

Bacteria: Single celled organisms that occur in almost all environments

The bodies immune system fights back to destroy the bacteria, usually resulting in fever and inflammation. This is also called the body's defense mechanism

Two types of antibiotic


1- bactericidal agent: kills the invading organism


2- bacteriostatic agent: inhibits growth or multiplication of bacteria

Broad spectrum antibiotic


- also called empirical treatment, effective against multiple organisms

Parenteral form of antibiotics should be mixed exactly as directed by the manufactures. If mixed inappropriately, the drugs can be ineffective or may cause tissue or vein irritation, renal failure, or even death. After counting oral forms of antibiotics swab the counting tray with alcohol before placing a new drug on the tray to prevent cross-contamination, especially with penicillin and sulfa drugs

Antibiotic resistance occurs due to overuse and misuse , Broad spectrum antibiotics are sometimes prescribed before the infectious agent has been identified. Also patients often do not complete an antibiotic regimen. This allows the stronger bacteria to develop a resistant strain, if infection recurs it is more difficult to treat

Sulfonamides: oldest antibiotics on the market, bacteriostatic drugs that are effective against a broad range of micro organisms


Interrupts a specific step in the pathway for making vitamin B nine which is needed in making DNA


Uses:


Urinary tract infections


Otitis media


Ulcerative colitis


Lower respiratory infections



Side effects:


Rash


Nausea


Drug fever


Vomiting


Jaundice


Blood complications


Kidney damage


Stevens Johnson syndrome

Penicillin: A group of highly effective antibiotics with extremely low toxicity


Kills bacteria by preventing them from forming the rigid cell walls needed for survival


Uses:


Abscesses


Meningitis


Otitis media


Pneumonia


Respiratory infections


Strep throat



Side effects:


Diarrhea



Penicillin allergy affects 7-10% of the population


Itchy mild rash


Wheezing

Cephalosporin: mechanism of action similar to penicillin, but they differ in antibacterial spectrum, resistance to beta-lactamase and pharmacokinetics



Uses:


Oral infections


Heart and pacemaker procedures


Neurosurgical procedures


Orthopedic surgery


Upper respiratory and sinus infections


Meningitis


Intra abdominal infections



Side effects:


Diarrhea

Tetracycline: this group of drugs is produced by soil organisms, inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria by binding to ribosomes. The drug suppress the infection but they require phagocytosis to complete the eradication of the bacteria.



Uses:


Acne


Anthrax


Chronic bronchitis


Lyme disease


Walking pneumonia


Rocky Mountain spotted fever


Some stds



Side effects:


Gastrointestinal upset


Nausea


Vomiting



Side notes:


Should not be taken with antacids or laxatives


Avoid sun exposure


Avoid dairy


Do not use after expiration


Must be avoided by pregnant or nursing women and children

Macrolide: bacteriostatic agents used to treat pulmonary infections caused by legionella and gram positive organisms



Inhibit protein synthesis by combining with ribosomes



Uses:


Chlamydia


Group a beta


Legionnaires disease


M pneumonia


S pneumonia



Side effects:


Gastrointestinal distress


Ketolide : Block protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits, and they may also inhibit the formation of newly forming ribosomes



Uses:


Bacterial infections in lungs and sinuses



Patients should not drive while taking this drug, it can cause blurred vision or difficulty focusing

Quinolone


Have a strong, rapid bacteriocidal action against most Gram negative and gram-positive bacteria



They antagonize the enzyme responsible for coiling and replicating bacterial DNA during growth, causing DNA breakage and cell death



Uses:


Bone/ joint infections


Infectious diarrhea


Ophthalmic infections


Some stds


Upper respiratory infections


Urinary tract infections



Side effects:


Nausea and vomiting


Joint swelling


Dizziness


Unpleasant taste



Special notes:


Cannot take with antacids


Avoid sun exposure


Can cause joint problems


Not for children or pregnant women

Streptogramins: used to treat Gram positive vancomycin and methicillin resistant infections



Inhibit protein synthesis within the bacterial ribosomes



Side effects:


Nausea


Vomiting


Joint swelling


Dizziness

Aminoglycoside: commonly used to treat serious infections, exert their bacteriocidal action by binding to ribosomal sub units , inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis



Uses:


Most common drugs prescribed to treat life-threatening infections due to gram-negative aerobes, sepsis, immunocompromised patients and peritonitis



Side effects


Nephrotoxicity


Ototoxicity

Cyclic lipopeptide: find to bacterial membranes and cause the cell membrane to depolarize, thus leading to an inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis. Bacterial death follows.



Uses:


Hypotension


Insomnia


Rash


Constipation


Nausea


Diarrhea


Vancomycin: interferes with bacterial wall synthesis


Has been overused, bacterial resistance to this drug is increasing



Uses:


Dialysis patients


Endocarditis


Staph infections



Special note:


Can be Ototoxic and nephrotoxic. Neutropenia can also be a problem.

Clindamycin (cleocin): broad spectrum antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis



Uses:


Acne


Anaerobic pneumonia


Bone infections


Bowel infections


Female genital infections


Intra abdominal infections



Side effects:


Bloody diarrhea ( must discontinue drug)

Metronidazole ( Flagyl) : effective against fungi and Protozoa as well as bacteria.



Used primarily to treat trichomanas infections on the vaginal canal and cervix and of the male urethra.


Other uses:


Amoebic dysentery


Intestinal infections


STDs



Side effects:


Metallic taste


Diarrhea


Alcohol intolerance


Rash


May discolor urine



Special notes:


Do not drink with alcohol

Pentamidine (nebupent, pentam) : used as a second line agent for pneumocystis Carnii



Mechanism of action is unknown



Side effects:


May develop sudden hypotension



Special note:


Patients who develop wheezing or coughing during therapy may benefit by pretreatment with a bronchodilator

Linezolid (zyvox) : first oxazolidinone to be approved by the FDA.


Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis.


Uses:


Treats MRSA


Treats VRE



Drug must be protected from light ..