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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

4 fields of Anthropology

Cultural, Linguistic, Biological, Archaelogy

Archaeology is the study of ______ as well as a way of finding out about _______ human developement

Material culture (stuff and space)

Long term

Why not full of fossils

1. Not everything preserves

2. Not everything gets found

Examples of a place that has great geologic condition

Great Rift Valley in Africa

Why can fossil be found in surface


The earliest human ancestors are __________ first discerned in the fossil record about _______ years ago

Australopithecines, 4.2 million

Early human ancestors have cranial capacity about ______ - _______ cubic centimeters

375 - 550

Advantage of bipedalism

1. Eye forward

2. Taller

3. use of hands

4. heat management

5. efficient locomotion

Disadvantage of bipedalism

1. Makes birth difficult

"Members of species are not identical but vary in size, strength, health, fertility, behavior, and many other characteristics." - ____________

Alfred Russel Wallace

Pleistocene geologic era is from ________ ya to _________ ya

2.5 million years ago to 12,000 years ago

During Pleistocene, a diversity of Australopithecines form: homo _______, homo _________, homo ____________, and homo ___________

Natural environment not___

massive change in ____

homo erectus, homo heidelbergensis, homo neanderthalensis, and homo sapiens



________________ established the convention of the naming system in 1735 in his book, ________________

Carolus Linnaeus, Systems of Nature

________: categorize by size, shape, and eating habit.

________: can interbreed and produce fertile offsprings

Genus, Species

"Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups" - _____________, ______________

Ernst Mayr, Systematics

Two types of dating

Relative (Younger and older) and physical (Specific dates)

7 types of physical dating techniques

1. Potassium-Argon

2. Argon Argon

3. Radio Carbon

4. Dendrochronology

5. Uranium series

6. Electronic spin resonance

7. Luminescence

Potassium Argon

- measure rate of change from ___ to ___

- get samples from __________ deposit

- good for context _______ years old to more than ________ years

K to Ar

Volcanic, (not the actual fossil)

100,000 ya to 4 billion years

Argon Argon

- Ar __ isotop to Ar ___

- ______ deposit but good for ________

- Good for context _____ to more than _______ years

40 to 39

volcanic deposit, single crystals of volcanic rock

20,000 ya to 4 billion years


- Process measures slow release of ______ from anything that was ______

- can direct date _____ and _____

- good for context ______ to ________, not clear for recent things

- can date as small as a single seed (________)

C14, alive

bones, woods

500 ya, 50,000 ya



- physical examination of ______ layer

- only for ______

- date as old as the oldest preserved trees (__________ ya)



40,000 ya

Uranium - series

- rate of decay of _________

- used on ________ and _______

- good for time periods from the __________ to about ____________ ya


stalactites and corals

present to 500,000 ya

Electronic spin resonance

- amount of decay in the _______ taken in by an individual over the lifetime

- for _________

- good for time periods from _________ to _________



10,000 to a million ya


- last time the item was __________ (thermoluminescence) or exposed to ________ (optically-stimulated luminescence)

- Applies to ________ and ________ tools

- good for time periods from ________ to __________

heated, light

quartz grain, heated

present to 500,000 ya

Homo erectus carried out a major migration from African starting around _________ mya


Where do we find human ancestors 2 million years ago?


Where do we find human ancestors 1 million years ago?

Africa, Asia, Indonesia, Java

Social characteristics of Homo

1. _______

2. ________ use of locations

3. _______-user

1. Fire

2. Repeated

3. Tool

Physical characteristics of Homo

1. first identified specimens around ______ mya

2. big brain relative to _______________

3. found in _______ and _______

4. they are mostly ____________ (way of living)

5. less/more sexual dimorphism

6. face is more __________ (less ________)

7. development of a more ____________ nose

1. 2

2. australopithecines

3. africa and asia

4. hunter, gatherer

5. less

6. pulled in, prognathic

7. pronounced external

There are ______ major cold periods


Out of Africa 2 refers to the same migrating pattern as Out of Africa 1, but it's for homo ______________ starting __________ ya

sapiens, 150,000

3 Components for the roles of language

1. Physical

2. Cognitive

3. Social

Examples of physical components of language

teeth, tongue, lips, jaw, larynx, breathing, apparatus, brain

Cognitive means to learn from ______________ so one can ____________ and talk efficiently

Experience, predict

Cooperation is seen in hunting, happened about ______________ ya.

Brain size reached modern level by __________ ya

An accelerated cultural phase starting _________ ya in __________, fully evident by ____________ globally



100,000, South Africa, 50,000

Behavioral Modernity

A profound and fundamental change in both behavior and human potentials

Behavioral modernity evident by __________ ya

1. __________ stone blades

2. tools made of ______, ______, _______, _______

3. hunting ________ animals (not just practical but also social)

4. bigger range of ______, included _______, _______, and more types of _______

5. purposeful and formal _______

6. development of _______



bone, antler, ivory like hooks


diet, rodents, shellfish, plants



When is art developed?

Stringer says 100,000 ya, 50,000 solid

Arts come in 4 forms,

Ornaments, figurines, decorated tools, rock art

Stinger uses "behavioral modernity".

others refers to this period "___________" in Africa, "_________" in Europe

Middle Stone Age, Upper Paleolithic


Stiner's article emphasized the role of portable ornaments as a form of materialized communication

First found of Neanderthals was in _____ in _________

1856, Germany

1859 - Darwin

1858 - Alford

Difference between H. sapiens and H. neanderthals

occipital buns: mass in the back of the head (neanderthals)

brow ridge: (neanderthals)

prognathism: pull-out face (neanderthals)

more heavyset

wider pelvis


No neanderthals in _____, only _____ and ______

Asia, Europe and eastern Mediterranien


"In general, seem to be distinct forms within a species, with the intraspecific distinctions based on geographical separation and/or interpopulational morphological, genetic, ecological, or behavioral differences"

Neanderthals are __________ - ___________ ya

500,000 - 30,000 ya

3 kinds of DNA

autosomal DNA (functional and junk)

mitochondrial DNA (from mom)

Y-chromosome (from dad)

DNA can be traced to a single ancestor around ______________ ya


Migration of modern Homo starting around _______________ ya because

1. _______________

2. _______________


1. climate change

2. new opportunity

Wallace Line

80-90 km water between indonesia and australia

different plants and animal on either side of line

Study of DNA can be direct (_____________) and indirect (_______________)

ancient items, organs

backwards from living populations

Key concept 1 in The Prehistory of Ordinary People

Food, Good, Work

Key concept 2 in Prehistory of Ordinary People

The individual

Key concept 3 in Prehistory of Ordinary People


Key concept 4 in Prehistory of Ordinary People

Cultural adaptation

creativity: change

habituation: stasis

The geologic era after Pleistocene


Holocene starts _________ ya, it is also known as __________________. Human ____ at least as important as ____. Identified by ____ and ____

Climate is ____



impact, natural processes

Braje, Erlandson

warm and stable

5 ways to study food

1. analysis of climate opportunities

2. botanical analysis of plant remains

3. faunal analysis of bones

4. analysis human skeleton

5. pottery containers fo residue

6. rock art

7. rarely, text and historical analysis

"A biological process that involves changes in the physical characteristics of plants and animals as they become dependent on humans for reproductive success"


3 reasons of domestication

1. population growth

2. climate opportunity

3. parties

After the adoption of agriculture, male-female demographics change in 3 ways

1) female (mortality, # of children, maternal risk)

2) food for people with difficulty chewing

3) injury and death from foraging/hunting and conflict decrease

5 complexities of food production

1) Sedentism - trash/disease vectors

2) Specialization

3) Storage

4) Access

5) Sex-based differences - activities

This place has central circular structure that was abandoned in a spectacular way with headless human skeleton

Site of Jerf el Ahmar, 9600-8800 BC

first piece of monumental architecture with concentrated community ritual and buried beautiful craft

Gobekli Tepe, 9000 BC

Define "Cities"

Places of concentrated population

Define "States"

territories that are held together by political authorities

Define "Empires"

large political groups that extend over large areas of continents

Holocene is a time period. _____________ is a way of life that refers to a time of plant and animal domestication


BC stands for ______________; AD means _________________;

Before Christ;

Anno Domini

BP stands for ________________. It technically means before the year _________ because that is when _________________ was developed

Before Present


radiocarbon dating

Egyptian agriculture starts around _________ BC


____________ means "simple tomb"


example of Mastaba site, _____________. There are a lot of pottery. Industrial strength brewing

Hierakonpolis, 3200 BC

what are the towns up and down Nile good for? year:

1. Redistribution

2. Defense

3. Ritual

4. good for political leaders


The unification of the towns along Nile happened around ________ BC, by ________

3100, Narmer

Examples of caves with extensive rock art include cave __________ and _________ in France, _______________ in Spain

Chauvet, Lascaux

Alta Mira

In this site, _____________ in Europe, there are evidence for morphologies ancestral to both Homo sapiens and Neanderthals


In this site, _______________, in Spain, there are bones found dated ______________ ya. There are a lot of beat up stuff. Evidence for morphologies to but

Sima de los Huesos, 400,000 ya

Behavior of Homo Neanderthals

1. _________ and __________ in Spain

2. _________ tools (Mousterian)

3. Maybe some __________

4. Purposeful __________

5. Diet: ____________ in Spain

6. Physical injuries consistent with _____________ or interpersonal ______________

7. ____________ in childhood

1. Pendants, cosmetics

2. flaked

3. music

4. burial

5. cannibalism

6. risk, violence

7. dietary stress

Until recently, Neanderthals and H. sapiens were considered the only recent bipedal examples of human ancestors ... But a brief detour to the Hobbit problem ( H. _____________ ), found in __________________ about ___________ to ____________ ya


easter tip of indonesia

95,000, 18,000

AMS datin

Accelerator mass spectrometry

Leadership as a collaborative process to manages risks of: ___________, ___________, ___________ through mechanisms of ___________,____________, and ______________.

violence, famine, uncertainty

taxation, control, ritual investment

Warmer and drier environment of the Holocene starting 12,000 ya prompted gradual shift from hunting and gathering to a strategy of concentrated resources. Examples like __________ in Near East, the area where _____, ______, ______, _______ were domesticated


wheat, barley, cattle, sheep, goats

"In general, subspecies seem to be regarded as distinct forms within a species, with the intraspecific distinctions based on ___________ separation and/or interpopulational ___________, __________, _____________, or _____________ differences." - _____________

geological, morphological, behavioral, genetic, ecological

C.B. Stanford

__________ and her colleagues focused on the study of mtDNA and found that it appears to mutate 5-10 fasterthan “regular” DNA and provides akind of “_______________” for change

Rebecca Cann

Molecular clock

_______________ and ____________ have studied Y chromosome

Jennifer Hughes and David Page

Humans moved to America by perhaps _______________ ya and north america megafauna started to disappear _______________ ya



Why study food?

1. Our species only moved from food-collection to food-production about 10-12,000 years ago. Prior to that, our specieswas like any other type of mammal,collecting food from the landscape as it wasfound without any modification. Butpopulations grew and favorable areasdiminished, meaning that there were twochoices: fight over everything, or stay putand grow food.

2. The cultivation of staple foods likegrains is regarded as the essentialunderpinning to the development ofcities, states and empires. Thesecomplex political and socialdevelopments only started about6,000 years ago.

Why social complexities happened?

1. Agricultural surplus and craft specialization, enables complexities

2. The Hydraulic Hypothesis, forces complexities

3. Trade imperative, forces complexities

4. Warfare, conflict is inevitable and has to be managed

Archaeological methods

Survey, Excavation, Analysis, Conservation, Publication

Fossilization is a process of _____ into a ____

organic material, rock

preserved when replaced on molecule by molecule basis

Evolutionary relationships are defined by ______ and _______

competition and survival of the fittest

a. species compete with each other and themselves

b. competitive characteristics passed on to offspring

c. extinction

Classification is a process of organizing data about ___ on the basis of ____ with inferences about _____

species, morphology, reproductive viability

dating techniques directly on specimen

radiocarbon, electron spin resonance, dendrochronology, luminescene

contextual dating techniques

K-Ar, Ar-Ar, uranium

Homo ____ carried out major migration from Africa starting _____

Asia: ___
SE Asia ____

China: ____


erectus, 1.7 million ya





2 distinct characteristics of all homo

big brain = biologically expensive

less sexual dimorphism

rock art locations

cave of Chauvet, France

cave of Lascaux, France

Alta Mira in Spain

Stiner article:


emphasized the role of _____ as from of ____, what she calls ________

Site of Grotta Breuil, Italy

portable ornaments, materialized communications, bandwidth

a. conformity

Evidence of morphologies ancestral to both Sapiens and Neanderthals

Boxgrove- England: lots of tools, few Humans (500000ya)

Sima de los Huesos - lots of remains (400000 ya)

Evidence for Neanderthal cultural adaptations is increasing

modest amounts of art, burials, music, communication

Differences of Neanderthal culture

communication, risk-taking

Why might we call them Homo sapiens neanderthalensis? Homo neanderthalensis?

Make implications about relation to Homo sapiens- not significant enough to result in infertile offspring

When did humans arrive in Australia? What disappeared?

150,000ya, megafauna

Australia technological adaptations

fishing net, fire

local adaptations in Australia

new animals, small tools, long-distance trade

Australian sites

Wilandra Lakes, Lake Mungo

Migrations to:


North and South America:

Hawaii and Easter Island

New Zealand





The study of DNA can be ___ (from an ancient item, as long as it has some organic material remaining) or _____ (traced backwards from living populations)

direct, indirect

DNA can help us address 2 big questions

migration of Homo from Africa into Asia

relationship of modern Homo sapiens to the Neanderthals

why do archaeologists think about food

1) population growth -- fight or grow

2) cultivation of staple foods is the essential underpinning to cities, states, empires

How to identify individual autonomous cognitive capacity in the archaeological past?

Health, Identity, Kinship, Time, Space, Gender, Language, Technology, Memory, Ritual, Value

Culture is activated at the ______ level, in which many aspects of ____ (from ____ to ____ to ____) are perceived entirely within the ___________

individual, life, health, language, identity, autonomous human body

We can look at everyday ____ actions of people interacting with __,__, __ to analyze and understand large-scale _______

multitasking, foods, goods, work, social changes

What gets domesticated?

starches (corn, wheat, barley, rice)

docile meat

Why grains? Why animals

adapted for starch consumption

work, other resources (milk, wool)

Good aspects of food production

control over food supply

potential for surplus

Bad aspects of food production

worse diet due to dependence on carbs

increase rate of cavities

repetitive motion injuries

Simple societies

1) groups such as villages where you know everyone face to face

2) now where next meal is coming from

3) leaders occasionally organize ppl to do something spectacular

complex societies

1) don't know everyone face to face so have other mechanisms of recognizing ppl that is o to have interaction with (beads)

2) Don't now where next meal coming from, but assurance it will be there

3) leaders organize ppl to do ordinary and spectacular tasks

How social complexity happens

Intensification of agriculture, concentration of wealth, population increase, welfare, trade

why social complexity happens

1) agricultural surplus and craft specialization

2) hydraulic hypothesis

3) Trade imperative

4) warfare

How did humans affect envrionment

1) fire

2) hunting prime animals

3) intensive rice farming

4) industrial processes- 20,000ya

5) fossil fuels 1700

There is a long philosophical and political lineage of attention to human-environmental dynamics

Thoreau 1854, Carson 1962, Earth Day 1970

di Lernia article

Ppl can survive on just animal domestication

cattle cult- social response to cope with droughts and famine 6400 BP

transitions to human burials 5000 BP

How is animal domestication different from plant?

1) Herd animals more valuable, symbolize power and status

2) flexible, can migrate


way of life in which ppl herd animals

In north Africa during Holocene, _____ and ____ were 2 ways of crating social stability; this later shifted to emphasis on _____

cattle cult, migration

humans in burial

V Gordon Childe's list of 10 criteria for a city

1) Large number of people in a small area

2) Some people aren't farmers but are specialized crafts-makers

3) Control of an economic surplus by central authority

4) Monumental public architecture

5)Developed social stratification

6) Writing or other recording systems

7) Mathematics and other sciences

8) Art

9) Foreign trade

10) Group membership based on residence rather than kinship

Build social relationships

Ur article

Bronze Age cities 3000-1500BC

Tel Hamoukar, Syria

Uruk, Iraq

Assur, Iraq

Eridu - early temple

Ziggurat - ur