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38 Cards in this Set

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abnormal hemoglobin

Hemoglobin altered so that it is less efficient in binding to and carrying oxygen

admixture

The exchange of genetic material between two or more populations

balanced polymorphism

Situation in which selection maintains two or more phenotypes for a specific gene in a population

capillaries

Small blood vessels between the terminal ends of arteries and the veins

deme

A local population of organisms that have similar genes, interbreed, and produce offspring

demic diffusion

A population's movement into an area previously uninhabited by that group

directional selection

Selection for one allele over the other alleles, causing the allele frequencies to shift in one direction

disruptive selection

Selection for both extremes of the phenotypic distribution; may eventually lead to a speciation event

endogamous

Refers to a population in which individuals breed only with other members of the population

equilibrium

A condition in which the system is stable, balanced, and unchanging

exogamous

Refers to a population in which individuals breed only with nonmembers of their population

fitness

Average number of offspring produced by parents with a particular genotype compared to the number of offspring produced by parents with another genotype

founder effect

The accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that has become isolated from the parent population due to the genetic input of only a few colonizers

frameshift mutation

The change in a gene due to the insertion or deletion of one or more nitrogen bases, which causes the subsequent triplets to be arranged and the codons to be read incorrectly during translation

gene pool

All the genetic information in the breeding population

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)

An enzyme that aids in the proper functioning of red blood cells; its deficiency, a genetic condition, leads to hemolytic anemia

Hardy-Weinburg law of equilibrium

A mathematical model in population genetics that reflects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes; it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes

hemoglobinopathies

A group of related genetic blood diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobin

hemolytic anemias

Conditions of insufficient iron in blood due to the destruction of red blood cells resulting from genetic blood diseases, toxins, or infectious pathogens

Huntington's chorea

.

induced mutations

.

Klinefetter's syndrome

.

macroevolution

.

melanic

.

microevolution

.

mutagens

.

nonmelanic

.

nonsynonymous point mutation

.

point mutations

.

positive selection

.

reproductive isolation

.

sickle-cell anemia

.

spontaneous mutations

.

stabilizing selection

.

synonymous point mutation

.

thalessemia

.

transposable elements

.

anthropogenic

Refers to any effect caused by humans