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177 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where is DNA found?
In the nucleus of the cell
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
2 strands of nucleic acid wind together to form a _____ _____
Double helix
What is one piece or strand of DNA called?
Chromosome
True/False?
All species have the same number of chromosomes.
False
What is the process called when DNA is turned into RNA?
Transcription
What is it called when RNA is turned into proteins?
Translation
What is a pair of homologous chromosomes called?
homologs
What is the gene location on a chromosome called?
Locus or loci
What are different forms of a gene called?
Alleles
If you have n pair of heterozygous genes, how many genetically different sperm/egg will you have? How many different genotypes?
Sperm/egg - 2^n
genotypes- 3^n
What are the two ways traits can be measured?
subjectively and objectively
How are qualitative traits measured?
objectively
How are qualitative traits measured?
subjectively
What is breeding value?
"parental worth" the genotype transferred from parent to offspring.
What is a non additive value?
gene combinations in the individual that are unique in each generation and not passed down.
What is a common way to eliminate the environmental portion of the phenotype?
adjusted records
For the purpose of adjusted records, if the dam is 3 years old how many pounds would the bull calf be? the heifer calf?
bull calf - 40
heifer calf - 36
For the purpose of adjusted records, if the dam is 5-10 years old how many pounds would the bull calf be? the heifer calf?
bull calf - 0
heifer calf - 0
What is selection also known as?
differential reproduction
What is selection differential?
deciding which animals reproduce and which ones dont.
What is selection differential also known as?
reach
What is "reach" or selection differential?
the superiority of interiority of selected animals compared to the group average
If the average little size is 12 and the selected average litter size is 14, what is the selection differential?
2
What is heritability?
the total phenotypic variation due to breeding value
If something is highly heritable, what percentage does it have?
over 40%
If something has medium heritability what percentage does it have?
20-39%
If something has low heritability what percentage does it have?
less than 20%
What are the three different types of selection methods?
Tandem, Independent culling levels, and selection index
What selection method is good for less than two traits?
Tandem method
What is the easiest and most popular selection method?
Independent culling levels
What is the most powerful/strongest selection method?
Selection index
What are the two types of breeders?
1. seedstock
2. commercial
What are the 3 decisions that breeders normally have to make?
1. choosing individuals that become parents
2. rate of reproduction
3.mating system
What is a mating system?
An ID by genetic relationship of the animals being mated
What is inbreeding?
the mating of animals more closely related than the population
What is outbreeding?
the mating of animals not as closely related
What is inbreedings main purpose?
heterosis!
Most inbred animals are extremely heterozygous or homozygous?
homozygous
True or False:
The genotype of an individual is inherited from its parents.
True
True or False:
All mammals have the same number of chromosomes in their cells.
False
True or False:
A gene is made up of the entire piece of DNA or chromosome.
False
True or False:
There are multiple genes on a single chromosome.
True
True or False:
A homozygous animal will always have the superior phenotype.
False
True or False:
A gene that interacts with its homologous allele is displaying allelic interactions.
True
Fill in the blank:
Mating homozygous recessive with homozygous dominant parents can result in offspring that display _______ (also known as hybrid vigor), which means that the offspring outperform their parents.
heterosis
Fill in the blank:
A pig possesses alleles for a given trait that are identical is said to be __________. When alleles for the trait are different, the individual is said to be ________.
homozygous

heterozygous
Fill in the blank:
Within all diploid cells, chromosomes are paired and carry genes that affect the same traits. These paired chromosomes are said to be _______.
Homologues
True or False:
Chemical digestion does not occur in the mouth of swine.
False
True or False:
The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach.
True
True or False:
The function of the stomach is to absorb feed.
False
True or False:
Mastication occurs in the large intestine.
False
True or False:
The majority of water absorption occurs in the large intestine.
True
What does amylase break down?
Starch
What does trypsin break down?
Proteins
What does lipase break down?
Fats
What does chymotrypsin break down?
Peptides
What are the 3 volatile fatty acids produced in the rumen by microbes?
1. Acetic Acid
2. Propionic Acid
3. Butyric Acid
What are the 4 stomach compartments in a ewe?
Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum
What are the 3 sections of the small intestine in the sow?
1. Duodenum
2. Jejunem
3. ileum
What are the "finger-like" microscopic projections lining the small intestine called?
Villi
Phenotype = genotype + ________
environment
Phenotypic variation that is due to differences in an animals genotype is called ________.
Heritability
What is the term for superiority (or inferiority) of animals selected to be parents compared to the average of the herd?
selection differential
The amount of genetic change made in a herd of animals during a year can be predicted by knowing what three variables?
1. Heritability
2. Selection differential
3. Generation interval
What is the term for the average age of parents when their offspring are born?
Generation interval
Which selection procedure involves selection for only one trait at a time and is least effective?
Tandem
Which selection procedure involves ranking each individual animal against all others in the herd for the traits being selected and then obtaining a total score of the ranks for each animal. and is most effective?
Selection index
True or False:
Quantitative traits are subjectively measured, such as hair color.
False
True or False:
Qualitative traits are objectively measured, such as milk production.
False
True or False:
Breeding value refers to the genotype passed down to The offspring from the parent.
True
True or False:
The total phenotypic variation due to breeding value is known as heritability.
True
True or False:
The number of different genetic combinations decreases as the number of genes considered for a trait increases
False
What is a major disadvantage of inbreeding?
Inbreeding is detrimental to reproductive performance and preweaning and postweaning growth.
What is line breeding?
A low risk form of inbreeding used to maintain a high genetic relationship to an outstanding ancestor.
What are the two primary reasons for crossbreeding?
1. To take advantage of breed complementation
2. To take advantage of heterosis
What is outcrossing?
Mating of unrelated animals of the same breed
What is grading up?
The mating of purebred sires to commercial grade females and their female offspring for several generations
What are the four types of outbreeding?
1. Species Cross
2. Cross breeding
3. Out crossing
4. Grading up
What is the most aggressive type of cross when outbreeding?
Species Cross
What are the three types of cross breeding?
1. two breed rotation
2. three breed rotation
3. terminal crossbreeding
How many compartments does a non-ruminent stomach have?
1
How many compartments does a ruminent stomach have?
4
What two things does the mouth contain?
1. teeth
2. tongue
What are the two functions of the teeth?
1. breakdown feed
2. mastication
What is mastication?
Chewing
What is the function of the tongue?
deglutition
What is deglutition?
Swallowing
What is the function of the esophagus?
To connect the mouth to the stomach
What is the function of the non ruminent stomach?
To break down feed
What are the 4 regions of the non ruminent stomach?
1. Cardiac
2. Fundic
3. Corpus
4. Pyloric
What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?
To hold the food in the stomach until it is totally digested
What is the main function of the rumen?
Fermentation through bacteria and protozoa
What is the secondary function of the rumen?
to break down feed
What is another name for chewing the cud?
Rumination
What is rumination?
The regurgitation, chewing, and reswallowing of a bolus of food.
What does increasing the surface area of the rumen do?
It increases the amount of bacteria and protozoa which in turn increases the rate of fermentation.
What is the function of the reticulum?
More fermentation and further breakdown
What does the reticulum look like according to Dr. Whitaker?
A honeycomb
What is the function of the Omasum?
Grinding
What are the folds of the omasum called?
Manyplies
What is the abomasum also called?
the true stomach
What are the two functions of the duodenum?
1. Further feed breakdown
2. Absorption of nutrients
What is another name for the large intestine?
colon
What are the two functions of the large intestine?
1. Water absorption
2. feces formation
Give the order in which the seed travels through the digestive system in poultry.
1. Beak
2. Esophagus
3. Crop
4. Proventriculus
5. Gizzard
6. Small intestine
7. Large intestine
In non ruminents, what two enzymes does saliva have?
1. Lipase
2. Amalase
What are the two types of mastication?
1. Mechanical
2. Chemical
What is an enzyme?
Proteins that catylize a chemical reaction
Why does HCl enter the non ruminent stomach? (2 reasons)
1. To create an acidic environment
2. Milk coagulation
Why does pepsin enter the non ruminent stomach? (2 reasons)
1. Protein breakdown
2. Only active in a highly acidic environment
Why does the non ruminent stomach have a mucus lining?
to protect the stomach from acid
What is chyme?
The substance left over after complete breakdown occurs in stomach
The dudenal cells release what two chemicals?
1. Secretin
2. CCK
What does CCK stand for?
Cholecystokinin
The duodenal cells secrete Secretin which targets the ______, and this organ releases _______ ______ to neutralize chyme.
Pancreas

Pancreatic juices
The entrance of chyme into the duodenum triggers the release of _________ which targets the ______ and _______.
CCK (Cholecystokinin)

Gall Bladder

Pancreas
CCK triggers the gall bladder to release _______
bile
What does bile do?
emulsifies fats
When CCK targets the pancreas, it triggers the pancreas to release what 4 enzymes?
1. Lipase
2. Amylase
3. Trypsin
4. Chymotrypsin
What type of animal feed has high energy low fiber and is highly digestible?
Concentrate
Give some examples of concentrate animal feed.
Cereal grains, oil meals, and molasses
What type of animal feed is low in energy, high fiber, and has low digestibility?
Roughage
Give some examples of roughages?
Hay, silage, grazing forages
What is a nutrient?
Any feed constituent that functions in the support of life
What is a nutrient?
Any feed constituent that functions in the support of life
What is the most important nutrient?
Water
What four things is water needed for in the body?
1. Metabolic reactions
2. Nutrient transportation
3. Maintain body temperature
4. Cell shape/body shape
What is animal feed called when you remove the water from it?
Dry Matter
What three elements do all carbohydrates contain?
1. Carbon
2.Hydrogen
3. Oxygen
What is the simplest form of carbohydrates?
Starch!
What is starch used for?
Energy storage
What is the complex form of carbohydrates?
Cellulose
What is the major building block of plant structure?
Cellulos
What are lipids known as?
Fats and oils
What type of lipids are solid at room temperature?
Fats
What type of lipids are liquid at room temperature?
Oils
How much more energy do lipids contain than carbohydrates?
2.25 times the amount of energy than carbohydrates
What is the lipid form inside cells?
triglyceride
What are essential fatty acids defined as?
Fatty acids required by all animals
What are the 2 essential fatty acids?
1. Linoleic acid
2. Linolenic acid
What are the essential fatty acids needed for?
Cell structure and prostaglandin synthesis
What are the two essential fatty acids also known as?
Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids
What is the only nutrient that contains nitrogen?
Proteins
What are the building blocks of proteins?
amino acids
What is the bond called that connects amino acids together?
Peptide bonds
What are the 5 functions of protein?
1. Body growth
2. Milk production
3. Cell tissue and repair
4. Nutrient transportation
5. Enzymes
What is an essential amino acid defined as?
An amino acid that has to be provided in diet
What are the 10 essential amino acids?
1. Arginine
2. Histidine
3. Isoleucine
4. leucine
5. lysine
6. methionine
7. phenylalanine
8. threonine
9. Tryptophan
10. Valine
What is a nonessential amino acid defined as?
An amino acid that can be synthesized in the animal
What are the 11 non essential amino acids?
1. alanine
2. asparganine
3. aspartic acid
4. cysteine
5. glutamic acid
6. glutamine
7. glycine
8. hydroxproline
9. proline
10. serine
11. tyrosine
What is the first limiting amino acid?
Methionine
What is a limiting amino acid?
If that amino acids levels are not met, nothing else matters.
What are the two types of minerals?
1. Macrominerals
2. Microminerals
What is a macromineral defined as?
A mineral that is required in large amounts
What are the seven macrominerals?
1. Calcium
2. Chlorine
3. Magnesium
4. Phosphorus
5. Potassium
6. Sodium
7. Sulfur
What two macrominerals are needed for bone growth and development?
Calcium and Phosphorus
What 3 macrominerals are needed for plasma and blood osmolarity?
1. Chlorine
2. Potassium
3. Sodium
What are microminerals also called?
trace minerals
What are microminerals defined as?
minerals that are required in small amounts
What are the 10 micro minerals?
1. Chromium
2. Cobalt
3. Copper
4. Fluorine
5. Iodine
6. Iron
7. Manganese
8. Molybdenum
9. Selenium
10. Zinc
What are the two types of vitamins?
1. Water soluble
2. Fat soluble
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, K
What does vitamin A do?
It is responsible for eye pigment color, and repair of body linings
What does Vitamin D do?
It regulates absorption of Calcium and Phosphorus from the intestine
What does Vitamin E do
It prevents cell membrane damage. also known antioxidents
What does Vitamin K do?
It helps in blood clotting
What is the digestibility of feed?
The amount of nutrients absorbed from digestive tract.
What is the formula to find the digestibility of feed?
(amt of nutrient in feed-amt of nutrient in feces) divided by amt of nutrient in feed, All multiplied by 100 = percent digestibility
What is energy used for in the body?
It drives the chemical reaction and body functions
What does TDN stand for?
Total digestible nutrients
What is net energy divided up into?
1. Maintenence
2. Production
What is basal metabolism?
The energy needed for normal activities
True or False:
Protein synthesis needs to be greater than protein breakdown.
True
What is fattening?
The storing of surplus energy as fat
Why do producers usually feed a high energy diet to their animal right before slaughter?
High energy foods are extremely fattening and expensive. It gives the animal the appropriate amount of fat at the time of slaughter
What is the largest energy/nutrition requirement?
Lactation