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16 Cards in this Set

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dN/dt = r(K-N/K)
Logistic Growth
Population growth which is limited by the environment and exhibits a sigmoidal or S-Shaped growth curve.

r = intrinsic rate of increase
N= current population size

r decreases, as N increases
K (Carrying Capacity)
Maximum number of individuals that can be supported in a given environment.
Lag Phase
Region of curve when population is small and growth is slow.
Growth Phase
Region of curve where growth accelerates and begins to resemble exponential growth.
Environmental Resistance
region of graph where growth begins to slow as it approaches the carrying capacity.

N/K= environmental resistance
Density Independent Factors
Abiotic factors which act upon population size such as floods, geologica events, snowfall precipitation, temperature (independent of population size)

Less predictable in their effects
Density Dependent Factors
Biotic factors which act upon population size such as:
Density dependent mortality
Density dependent fecundity
Disease and Competition
Social Behaviors
May function to limit population size through a variety of mechanisms.

May limit breeding to a few select members (Dominance)

May limit the number of individuals within a given areas

May encourage individuals to emigrate into new areas in search of new territory or mates
HIghly complex level of social behavior (prides, packs, colonies etc)

Individuals of more than one generation live together

Cooperative care of the young

Division of individuals into reproductive and non-reproductive castes.
Inclusive Fitness
The total fitness of an individual and the fitness of its relatives.
Kin selection
Differential reproduction among closely related individuals based on genetic variation in social behavior.

Alternatively, the evolutionary force which favors altruism.
A form of behavior in which an individual increases the welfare of another at the expense of its own welfare (self-sacrificing behavior)
Dispersion (Emigration)
Provides a means of reducing intraspecific competition

Dispersal can be permanent (individuals do not return)

Dispersal can also be annual or seasonal (migration)
Annual migrations reduce competition for food and mates in many species (especially during breeding seasons)

Annual migrations of large ungulates such as elk and caribou

Annual migrations of many avian species such as geese, swallows, and cranes

Annual migration of many aquatic species such as the grey whale and the humpback whale
Home Range
The area which an organism utilizes

Larger organisms require larger home ranges

Carnivores require larger ranges than herbivores
That part of the home range which is actively defended by an organism