• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Basic Function of the phonatory system
a valve to keep us from choking
1 bone, 9 cartilages and 15 paired muscles
hyoid bone
not attached directly to any other bone "free floating"

-corpus, lesser cornu and greater cornu
Thyroid Cartilage
paired, largest cartilage, all other cartilages attach or lie within it
thyroid angle/notch
the two laminas of the thyroid cartilage come together at an angle

-80 degrees for males and 90-100 degrees for females
ring shaped, articular facet attaches to the inferior cornu, immediately superior to the uppermost tracheal ring
Articular Facet
hallowed out part and attaches to the inferior cornu of thyroid-allows rocking action
leaf shaped, helps to prevent food from entering the larynx during swallowing, may be seen in children until the larynx drops
paired, located on the sloping borders of the cricoid. may appear triangular but are really pyrmidal. the muscular and vocal processes allow 2 to 3 movements. 1. rocking or tilting, 2. glide and 3. rotation but this is very controversial
Aryepiglottic folds
folds of mucous membrane from edges of epiglottis to the apex of each arytenoid
paired, protect the apex of each arytenoid
paired, very small rods, may not be present in everyone, are found within the aryepiglottic folds
Muscles of the Larynx
2 groups extrinsic and intrinsic
Extrinsic Muscles
affect the movement of the larynx, attach to laryngeal cartilages or hyoid from non-laryngeal structures
support hyoid from above, pull upward on larynx which increases tension and increases vocal pitch
sling-like with an anterior and posterior belly

O-sympysis of mandible
I-mastoid process of the temporal bone; anterior and posterior bellies are separated by the intermediate tendon on hyoid
A-pull up on hyoid, raising the larynx
parallel to and next to the posterior belly of degastricus

O-styloid process of temporal bone
I-near corpus of hyoid
A-pull up on hyoid, raising the larynx
unpaired? hard to tell where it ends. forms portion of the floor of the mouth

O-mylohyoid line of mandible
I-corpus of hyoid
A-pull up on hyoid, raising the larynx
superior to mylohyoid

O-deep inferior surface of mandible
I-anterior surface of hyoid
A-pull up on hyoid, raising larynx
support hyoid from below, pull downward on hyoid decreasing vocal tension and vocal pitch
O-manubrium of sternum
I-corpus of hyoid
A-pull down on hyoid, lowering the larynx
2 bellies; inferior and posterior

O-upper border of scapula
I-corpus of hyoid
A-pull down on hyoid, lowering the larynx
O-manubrium of sternum
I-thyroid lamina
A-pull down on hyoid, lowering the larynx
O-thyroid lamina
I-greater cornu of hyoid
A-pull down on hyoid, lowering the larynx
Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles
arise and insert within the larynx
Glottis or Rima Glottidis
opening between the folds when folds are abducted
True Vocal Folds are composed of 5 layers of tissue
1. epithelium
2. superficial layer
3. intermediate layer
4. deep layer
5. vocalis muscle
superficial layer + intermediate layer + deep layer=
lamina propria
intermediate layer + deep layer=
vocal ligament
vocal processes
located on back of the arytenoids
glottal tenser
it is extrinsic if?
it attaches outside the larynx
Thyroarytenoid muscle

O-deep surface of thyroid angle
I-vocal processes and lateral surface of the arytenoid
A-tenses vocal ligament raising vocal pitch

O-inner surface of thyroid angle
I-antero-lateral surface of arytenoids
A-relaxes glottal tension
maintains tension on folds, allows thyroid to rock on cricoid
Pars Oblique
O-outer portion of cricoid arch
I-inferior cornu of thyroid
Pars Recta
O-anterior of cricoid beneath the arch
I-lower margin of thyroid lamina
Posterior Cricoarytenoid
THE ABDUCTOR MUSCLE (separates the folds)

O-posterior surface of cricoid
I-muscular process of arytenoids
A-rotates arytenoids pulling them outward laterally
Adductor Muscles
Oblique Arytenoid
forms "X" shape across posterior surface of arytenoids

O-muscular process of one arytenoid
I-apex of opposite arytenoid
a-rotates and pulls together arytenoids
Transverse Arytenoid
under the "X"

O-entire posterior surface and lateral edge of one arytenoid
I-lateral edge and posterior surface of other arytenoid
A-pulls arytenoids together
oblique and transverse arytenoids are referred to collectively as the...
Lateral Cricoartyenoid
O-along superior-lateral edge of cricoid cartilage
I-at arytenoid on same side
A-rotates arytenoids closing glottis
Phonation occurs when
the larynx generates a rapid series of short pulses of air which produce a complex tone
During normal quiet breathing the vocal folds are
spaced far apart and the airstream is allowed to flow in and out
When the neural command is given for the folds to close
adduction is extremely rapid (2nd fastest reflex next to blinking)
when the folds are together the air flow is obstructed
thus building up sub-glottic pressure
Vocal folds of men and women
womens-shorter, faster vibration
men-longer, slower vibration
sub-glottic pressure develops enough pressure
blows the folds apart
Negative pressure builds up which
draws the folds back together again
vibratory cycle
115-140 per second for males and 210-240 for women
500+ for babies
Process of cycle
1. inhale
2. vocal folds adduct
3. sub-glottic pressure builds up to a threshold
4. folds get blown apart due to the threshold of pressure
5. release a burst of air
6. folds are adducted again
Cartilage Review
Cricoid Review
lowest, back is larger than the front
Throid Review
above the cricoid, front is solid with the notch, back is open with 4 extensions called horns
Arytenoid Review
sit on back of the cricoid, muscular process on back, apex at top, vocal process at front
Epiglottis Review
moves down when we swallow
Intrinsic Muscle Review
Cricothyroid Review
attaches to the cricoid and thyroid
Interarytenoid Review
are inside the arytenoids
inside make up vocal folds
Vocal Folds Review
made up of 5 layers of tissue
False vocal folds do not...
Cricothyroid causes the...
rocking motion
Space between the vocal folds is the...
glottis/ rima glottidis
Interarytenoids pull...
together, but there is still space
Lateral cricoarytenoids...
pivot, but there is still space
for the folds to completely close the...
inter and lateral arytenoids need to be working
bringing together
pulling apart