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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is hypo & hypertelorism cyclopia?
- space between eyes are too close or too far apart
what arch is treacher collins & pierre robin associated with?
- arch 1
how does the neural crest form?
- via delamination of the neuroectoderm at lateral margins of neural plate
which level of the neural crest is affected in DiGeorge?
- problem is with vagal (post-otic) neural crest cells

- get problems of immune system, great vessels
what happens to paraxial mesoderm rostral to the otic vesicle?
- paraxial mesoderm does not form epithelial somites

- forms individual unit called somitomere
what comes from the somitomeres?
- muscles that will be innervated by the cranial nerves
what are the placodes?
- epithelial thickenings that give rise to neurons & other parts of nervous system
does the placode give rise to the proximal or distal part of the ganglion?
- distal
what are the 3 origins of bone for skull & face?
- dermal bone origins - contributed by condenstation of mesenchymal tissue originates from neural crest

- cartilage precursor

- green are pharyngeal arch cartilage
pharyngeal arch 1: artery? muscles? nerve?
- artery: terminal branch of maxillary

- muscles: muscles of mastication, everything by V & tensors

- CN: V2 & V3
pharyngeal arch 2: artery? muscles? nerve?
- artery: stapedial artery, corticotympanic

- muscles: facial expression & stylohyoid & post. belly digastric & stapedius

- CN: facial CNVII
pharyngeal arch 3: artery? muscles? nerve?
- artery: common carotid

- muscles: stylopharyngeus

- nerve: IX
pharyngeal arch 4: artery? muscles? nerve?
- artery: arch of aorta, right subclavian

- muscles: pharynx

- nerve: superior laryngeal branch of X
pharyngeal arch 6: artery? muscles? nerve?
- artery: ductus arteriosus

- muscles: intrinsic muscles of larynx

- nerve: recurrent branch of X
which cartilages come from 1? from 2? 3? 4?
- 1: palatopterygoquadrate (contributes to wing of sphenoid), meckel's (gives rise to malleus & incus)

- 2: relchert's cartilage (contributes to stapes & lesser horn of body of hyoid)

- 3: most of hyoid bone

- 4: thyroid & cricoid cartilage
what are the 5 swellings of the face?
- frontonasal process (corresponds to opthalmic division of V1)

- paired maxillary processes

- paired mandibular processes
what are the two parts of the frontonasal process? how does this happen? how do these form the nose?
- medial & lateral formed by invagination of the olfactory placode

- medial process fuses to form intermaxillary process gives rise to philtrum - middle of nose/lips)
what is the primary palate an extension of? what is the other part of the palate?
- intermaxillary process

- as two maxillary processes grow they give rise to the palatine shelves that grow together to form rest of hard palate --> tongue needs to be out of way
what does the 1st pharyngeal cleft become?
- becomes the external auditory meatus
what is the endoderm for pharyngeal arch 1? 2? 3? 4?
- 1: median tongue bud & lateral lingual swellings - becomes ant 2/3 of tongue

- 2: copula

- 3: mucosa of posterior 1/3 of tongue

- 4: dorsal region of tongue
which pharyngeal pouches give rise to the parathyroid?
- 3 (inferior), 4 (superior)
what does the thyroglossal duct connect?
- connects the thyroid & the tongue --> moving down via foramen cecum
which pharyngeal pouch gives rise to the thymus? what happens in thymic aplasia?
- 3

- in thymic aplasia the 3rd pouch does not descend nor does the parathyroid associated with that pouch (inferior parathyroid)
who gives rise the branchial body & what does it do?
- 6th pharyngeal pouch

- it is buried within the thyroid, gives rise to C cells within PT gland --> secrete calcitonin
what happens in digeorge syndrome?
- problems with vagal (post otic) neural crest cells & 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches --> end up with thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcemia b/c parathyroid not ok, but branchial body (doing C cells are ok - from 6 pouch)
which part of the eye is derivative of CNS & which part is neural crest?
- retina is derivative of CNS

- surrounding parts are neural crest - sclera, choroids, cornea
what happens in eve development?
- evagination of optic vesicle - forms the optic cup (forms retina, ciliary body & iris)

- lens placode invaginates & gives rise to crystalin - clarity of lens in adult
what is holoprosencephaly?
- not two cerebral hemispheres - connection between them is the corpus callosum
what is the prechordal plate?
- major organizing center

- protein secreted is SHH