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47 Cards in this Set

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Vertebral Column/Spine
26 irregular bones connected in such a way that a flexible, curved structure results. Serves as the axial support of the trunk and extends from the skull to the pelvis. Surrounds and protects the spinal cord and provides attachment points for ribs and the muscles of the back and neck.
The separate bones of the vertebral column.
Cervical Vertebrae
Bones 1-7 in the spine. Concave curvature. The "neck" portion of the spine. Labelled C1-C7. Only vertebrae to have tranverse foramena, and some have bifid spinous process. Includes the atlas and the axis.
Thoracic Vertebrae
Bones 8-19 of the spine (12 in all). Convex curvature. Have facets on the transverse process for rib articulation and MAY have facets for ribs on the body. Spinous process usually just out inferiorly. Labelled T1-T12.
Lumbar Vertebrae
Bones 20-24 of the spine. Concave curvature. Lower back region. Labelled L1-L5. No rib articulation points, no transverse foramena.
Bone 25 of the spine--actually 5 fused vertebrae. Spade-shaped region inferior to the lumbar vertebrae. Articulates with the hip bones of the pelvis. Convex curvature.

Contains the median sacral crest, sacral foramena, sacral canal, sacral hiatus, and sacral promontory.
The terminus of the vertebral column. 3 to 5 fused bones. "Tail bone."
Vertebral Body/Centrum
The anterior, roundish mass that makes up the majority of a vertebra.
Vertebral Arch
The posterior portion of a vertebra, including the lamina and transverse processes.
Vertebral Foramen
Large, central hole in the vertebra which, when combined, create the vertebral canal.
Vertebral Canal
The sum of all of the vertebral foramen, which forms a long passage through which the spinal cord passes.
The lateral portions of the circumference of the vertebral foramen. "Arms" connecting the body of the vertebra to the vertebral arch.
The portion of the vertebral arch intermediate to the spinous process and the transverse process. Sort of a curving horizontal bar.
Spinous Process
A sharply jutting median posterior projection arising at the junction of the two laminae of a vertebra.
Transverse Process
Fingerlike protrusions extending laterally from each side of the vertebral arch.
Superior Articular Process
Smooth articular process protruding superiorly from the pedicle-lamina junction, flanking the vertebral foramen.
Inferior Articular Process
Smooth articular process protruding inferiorly from the pedicle-lamina junction, flanking the vertebral foramen.
The smooth joint surfaces of the articular processes of the vertebra, covered with hyaline cartilage.
Intervertebral Foramena
When viewing the vertebral column laterally, the lateral openings formed between the adjacent vertebrae's spinous processes.
Transverse Foramen
Smaller holes flanking the body of the cervical vertebrae, through which the vertebral arteries pass.
Bifid Spinous Process
The spinous process with a split tip possessed by vertebrae C3-C6.
C1. Vertebra with no body or spinous process. Superior articular facets are enlarged and set on lateral masses to support the head, articulating with the occipital condyles.

Contains the fovea dentis.
Fovea Dentis
Facet on the interior portion of the anterior arch of the atlas. Articulation point for the dens/odontoid process of the axis.
C2. Vertebra inferior to the atlas.

Contains the dens/odontoid process.
Dens/Odontoid Process
Knoblike protrusion jutting up from the vertebral arch of the axis to articulate with the fovea dentis of the atlas.
Sacral Promontory
The anterosuperior margin of the first sacral vertebra which bulges anteriorly into the pelvic cavity.

"Cup" of the sacral "ice cream cone"
Sacral Foramina
Holes flanking the bodies of the sacral vertebrae.
Median Sacral Crest
The fused spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae, forming a rough ridge on the dorsal midline of the sacrum.
Sacral Canal
The part of the vertebral canal which is inside the sacrum.
Sacral Hiatus
Large external opening at the end of the sacral canal.
Bony Thorax/Thoracic Cage
The thoracic vertebrae (dorsally), the ribs, the sternum, and the costal cartilages.
Breastbone. Lies in the anterior midline of the thorax.

Articulates with the ribs and clavicles.

Contains the jugular/sternal notch, clavicular notch, manubrium, sternal angle, sternal body, xiphisternal joint, and xiphoid process.
The superior portion of the sternum. The "knot" in the sternal "necktie."
Clavicular Notches
Notches situated laterally to the jugular notch on the manubrium at which the clavicles articulate with the sternum.
Sternal Body
The main section of the sternum. The "tie" portion of the sternal "necktie."
Xiphoid Process
The bladelike bit of cartilage which forms the inferior end of the sternum.
Jugular/Suprasternal Notch
The central indentation in the superior border of the manubrium of the sternum.
Sternal Angle
A horizontal ridge across the front of the sternum, where the manubrium joins the sternal body.
Xiphisternal Joint
The point where the sternal body and the xiphoid process fuse.
12 pairs of curving barlike bones which form the majority of the thoracic cage. Articulate posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae and curve inferiorly to the anterior body surface. Some attach to the sternum.
Vertebrosternal/True Ribs
The superior seven rib pairs, which attach directly to the sternum by individual costal cartilages.
False Ribs
Ribs 8-12. Attach indirectly to the sternum of lack a sternal attachment.
Vertebrochondral Ribs
Rib pairs 8-10, which attach to the sternum indirectly by joining the costal cartilage immediately above it.
Vertebral/Floating Ribs
Rib pairs 11-12. Have no anterior attachments.
Costal Margin
The inferior margin of the rib cage, formed by the costal cartilages of ribs 7-10.
Costal Cartilage
Cartilage connecting the ribs to the sternum.
Intercostal Spaces
Horizontal open spaces between the ribs.