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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The histology of the tracheobronchial tree is composed of three layers:

epithelial lining, lamina propria and cartilaginous layer

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is located

posterior 2/3 of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx

occurs below the vocal cords to the subsegmental airways (transition occurs in the bronchioles)

In PSCCE, mucus blanket is composed of __% water


The mucus blanket of the PSCCE is produced by ______ cells and the __________ ______

goblet cells and the submucosal glands

Submucosal glands produce the ________ of the mucus and are particularly numerous in the ______ sized airways

majority, medium

_____ move the mucus layer at a rate of ~_cm per minute

cilia, 2cm

Cilia moving mucus is referred to as the (2 things)

muscociliary escalator or muscociliary transport

Factors that slow mucociliary transport (9)

cigarette smoke

atmospheric pollutants



positive pressure ventilation

endotracheal suctioning

high inspired oxygen concentrations

general anesthetics


cuboidal epithelium occurs from

the bronchioles to the respiratory bronchioles

simple squamous epithelium occurs

in the gas exchange zone

Lamina propria is seperated from the epithelial layer by the

basement membrane

Lamina propria is the __________ layer of the tracheobronchial tree


Contained within the lamina propria is a loose fibrous tissue that contains

tiny blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, branches of the vagus nerve and mast cells

Lamina propria also contains _ sets of smooth muscle fibers


The 2 sets of smooth muscle fibers wrap around the _______________ tree in close spirals

tracheobronchial tree (one clockwise and one counter clockwise)

The outer portion of the lamina propria is surrounded by a thin connective tissue layer called the

peribronchial sheath

The last three layers of the tracheobronchial tree are


The outermost layer of the tracheobronchial tree is


The cartilaginous layer of the tracheobronchial tree progressively __________ in size as the airways extend into the lungs (incomplete rings - irregular plates)


The cartilaginous layer is completely ______ in bronchioles <_mm in diameter

absent, 1mm

Cellular immunity involves the activation of _ cells by an antigen

T cells

Cellular immunity has a ____ response time of about __ hours

slow, 36

Cellular immunity (Tcells) are responsible for ______ _________ in transplant patients

tissue rejection

Humoral immunity involves ___________ __________ (Or immunoglobulins) that are involved in allergic responses

circulating antibodies

Immunoglobulins are ________ that defend agains invading _____________ ________

proteins, environmental antigens

____ immunoglobulins have been identified but ___ is basic to the allergic response

Five, IgE

The ____ cells in the lamina propria play a roll in humoral immunity


A susceptible individual is exposed to an antigen and lympoid tissue produces ___ antibodies.


IgE antibodies attach to surface receptors on the ____ cells (____ cells are now _______ to that specific antigen)

mast, mast, specific

Re-exposure to that specific antigen creates an ___ antibody-antigen reaction on the surface of the ____ cell.

IgE, mast

The IgE antibody-antigen reaction response results in the ____________ of the antigen and mast cell _____________

inactivation, degranulation

Mast cell ____________ results in the release of chemical mediators of ___________

degranulation, inflammation

What chemical mediators of inflammation are released when a mast cell degranulates?

Histamine, heparin, SRS-A (slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis), PAF (platelet activating factor, ECF-A (eosinophilic chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis)

The release of the chemical mediators of inflammation from mast degranulation results in (4)

increase vascular permeability

smooth muscle contraction

increase in mucus secretion

vasodilation with edema

Asthmatics may produce IgE antibodies at __ times the normal rate

20 times

The release of chemical mediators of inflammation can result in these six things

bronchial edema

bronchospasms and wheezing

increased mucus production

mucus plugging

air trapping

lung hyperinflation

leukotriene inhibitors inhibit

certain chemical mediators of inflammation from exerting their effects

mast cell stabilizers prevent

the degranulation of the mast cells

Intersistium aka

Insterstitial space

Interstitial space surrounds and supports ________-_________ clusters


Interstitial space is a ___ like substance composed of ___________ acid and a _________ fiber network

Gel, hyaluronic acid, collagen

Hyaluronic acid is a _________ and ___________ agent

Binding and protective

Collagen is believed to limit _________ _____________

alveolar distensibility

Alveolar distensibility: expansion beyond can

occlude pulmonary capillaries, damage to collagen fibers and alveolar walls

Two major compartments of interstitium

tight space and loose space

The tight space interstitium is the space

between alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium

The tight space interstitium is the area where the most

gas exchange occurs

The loose space of the interstitium is the area that surrounds

the bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs

The loose space of the interstitium contains the

lymphatic vessels and neural fibers

Water content of the loose space of the interstitium can ________ more than __% before a significant pressure change develops

increase, 30%

Bronchial arteries arise from the _____


Bronchial arteries nourish the tracheobronchial tree to the level of the ________ ____________

terminal bronchioles

Bronchial arteries lose their identity beyond the terminal bronchioles and merge with the _________ ________ system

pulmonary vascular system

Bronchial blood supply nourishes the ___________ lymph nodes, __________ nerves, a portion of the __________ and the ____________ ______.

mediastinal lymph nodes, pulmonary nerves, a portion of the esophagus and the visceral pleura

Normal bronchial arterial blood flow is ~_% of the cardiac output


visceral pleura defined as

protective coating of the organs

_/_ of the bronchial venous blood flow returns to the ______ _______ via the azygos, hemiazygos and intercostal veins

1/3, right atrium

_/_ of the bronchial venous blood flow drains into the _________ __________ via bronchopulmonary anastomoses and then flows into the left atrium

2/3 pulmonary circulation


communication by blood vessels by the means of collateral channels

The pulmonary vascular system is an independent vascular network with the sole purpose of

delivering blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange

The pulmonary vascular system also provides nutrients to the structures distal to the

terminal bronchioles

The pulmonary vascular system is a ______ dependent, ____ pressure system

gravity, low

The pulmonary vascular system is composed of

arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins

Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle into the

pulmonary artery

The pulmonary artery branches into _____ and ____ branches and enter the lungs via the _____.

Right, left, hilum

The pulmonary artery follows the

tracheobronchial tree

Three layers of the artery are

tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia

The tunica intima is the

innermost layer

The tunica intima is composed of a

thin layer of connective and elastic tissues

The tunica media is the

middle layer

The tunica media in large arteries is primarily

primarily elastic connective tissue

The tunica media in medium/small arteries is primarily

smooth muscle

The tunica adventitia is the

outermost layer

The tunica adventitia is composed of

connective tissue that contains small vessels that nourish all 3 layers

Arterioles consist of three layers

endothelial layer, an elastic layer and a smooth muscle layer

In arterioles, elastic and smooth muscle layers gradually _________ before entering the _________-_________ system

disappear, alveolar-capillary

The arterioles nourish the

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli

Arterioles are __________ vessels


Arterioles play an important role in the

distribution and regulation of flow

Capillaries arise from the _________ __________ and surround the

pulmonary arterioles, alveoli

Capillaries are composed of an

endothelial layer

the endothelial layer is compose of a

single layer of squamous epithelial cells

Where does the gas exchange occur

in the capillaries

Capillaries have selective permeability to

water, electrolytes and sugar

Capillaries play an important role in the

destruction and production of various biologically active compounds

Cappillaries evolve into

venules and gradually into veins

Veins are essentially the same construction as arteries except

poorly developed tunica media = thinner walls

contain less smooth muscle and elastic tissue

contain only 2 layers in smaller veins (no tunica adventitia)

Medium large veins contain ___ ___ flap valves that aid blood flow back to the heart

one way

Veins differ from arteries in that they are

capable of collecting a large amount of blood with very little pressure change

Veins are referred to as

capacitance vessels

Veins do not follow the _________ ___ but take a more direct route to the heart

tracheobronchial tree

Veins merge into ___ large veins and exit the _____

two, hilum

How many pulmonary veins empty into the left atrium?