The ABCDE Framework (Resuscitation Council 2005)
Reassessments should also be completed regularly (Resuscitation Council 2005). From the use of this assessment tool, Mrs Reid was initially diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of asthma.
Asthma is an airway disorder that causes narrowing of the bronchi and excess mucus production due to an inflammatory response to a stimulus (Peate and Dutton 2012; Peate et al. 2012; McCarthy 2013). Possible stimuli include allergens, air pollutants, viral infections, exercise and emotional stress (Holgate and Douglass 2010), however this essay shall focus on allergic asthma as this is what Mrs Reid suffers from.
During an acute exacerbation of asthma, allergens are inhaled and attach to IgE molecules that are bound to the outside of mast cells in the airways (Douglas and Elward 2010). IgE molecules are a type of antibody that are secreted by B lymphocytes in response to allergens (Douglas and Elward 2010; Holgate and Douglass 2010). Once the allergens have attached to the IgE molecules on the mast cells, the mast cell then secretes histamine, prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene C4 (Bradding et al. 2006). These are chemical mediators which can induce bronchoconstriction, excess mucus secretion and mucosal oedema (Bledsoe et al. 2004; Bradding et al. 2006). Combined, this reduces the expiratory air flow and happens within minutes of exposure to the allergen (Bledsoe et al.