• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

182 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Lymphatic system
made up of liquid called lymph.
Which 5 structures are included in the lymphatic system?
1. spleen
2. tonsils
3. Peyer's patches
4. thymus gland
5. lymph vessels
What 2 parts is the lymphatic system made up of?
1. lymph vessels used to transport lymph
2. collection of lymphoid structures to protect against disease
Name 2 functions of the lymphatic system
1. transports excess interstitial fluid back into blood
2. protecting against disease
Define Lymph
excess interstitial fluid that contains small proteins not reabsorbed back into blood.
What is the function of lymphatics?
to transport lymph back to the blood
Where are lymph vessels NOT located?
bone marrow, CNS, and splenic pulp
With what are lymph vessels always associated?
vascular capillaries
What do both ducts have in common?
they both dump into the venous circulation
What drains lymph from the right sides of the head, neck, thorax, and arm?
the right lymphatic duct
What drains everything but the right arm, thorax, neck, and head?
thoracic duct
Name the four lymphoid "cells"
1. lymphocytes
2. dendritic cells
3. reticular fibers
4. macrophages
Fixed macrophages make up what system?
Reticuloendothelial system
Give another name for the reticuloendothelial system
Mononuclear phagocytic system
Where are Dendritic cells found?
in the lymph nodes and spleen
What is the Dendritic cell's function?
to activate immune system cells
What is are the functions of reticular fibers?
they form the framework of most lymphoid organs and serve as attachment points for fixed macrophages
What is the function of lymphoid tissue?
to be a surveillance for pathogens
Give the 2 categories of lymphoid tissue
1. diffuse
2. lymphoid nodules
Where is diffuse lymphoid tissue found?
lymph nodes and spleen
Describe Lymphoid nodules (or follicles)
1. spherical and discrete
2. contain large cluster of B cells to make plasma cells
3. found in mucous membrane and in large numbers in lymph nodes and spleen
What are the primary lymphatic organs?
1. bone marrow
2. thymus gland
What are made in the primary lymphatic organs?
B and T cells
What are the secondary lymphatic organs?
1. Spleen
2. Lymph nodes
What is the function of secondary lymphatic organs?
immune cell activity
Define Lymph Nodes
Discrete units of lymphoid tissue located entire length of lymphatic system and attached to lymph vessels
Name the four clusters of lymph nodes
1. cervical cluster
2. submandibular cluster
3. axillary cluster
4. inguinal cluster
Where is the cervical cluster?
near the internal jugualr vein
What does the cervical cluster filter?
lymph from the head and neck region
What does the submandibular cluster filter?
lymph from lips, nose, and teeth
What does the axillary cluster filter?
lymph from the underarm and chest region
Which 2 lymph vessels serve each lymph node?
afferent and efferent lymph vessels
Which cells do lymph nodes contain?
Both T and B cells
Where does an afferent lymph vessel move lymph?
into a node
Where does an efferent lymph vessel move lymph?
drains it OUT of the node
What is the largest lymphoid organ?
the spleen
Which blood vessels serve the spleen?
splenic artery and splenic vein
What are the 2 parts that the spleen is divided into?
1. red pulp
2. white pulp
What makes up red pulp?
venous sinuses
What makes up white pulp?
Where are platelets stored?
in the spleen
in the fetus, where are RBCs made?
the spleen
What hormone does the thymus gland produce?
When is the thymus gland most active?
in infancy and childhood
Where is the thymus gland located?
in the inferior region of the neck.
Define tonsils
masses of lymphatic nodules
List the 3 sets of tonsils
1. palatines
2. lingual
3. pharyngeal
Where are the palatines?
on either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity
Where are the linguals located?
at the base of the tongue
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located?
on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx
What is the function of tonsils?
to filter out foreign cells
Define Peyer's patches
tonsils in the small intestine
What do Peyer's patches protect against?
digestive tract infections
Define MALT
Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue; includes tonsils and peyer's patches
Define GALT
Gut associated lymphoid tissue; includes tonsils and Peyer's patches
What are the 2 categories of defense mechanisms?
1. non-specific defense mechanisms
2. specific defense mechanisms
What characterizes non-specific defense mechanisms?
protect against a large variety of pathogens at the same time
What characterizes specific defense mechanisms?
protect against specific pathogens
Which defense mechanism is innate?
the non-specific defense mechanism
What is your first line of defense?
skin and mucous membrane
What is your second line of defense?
phagocytic cells
Every time you are exposed to a particular pathogen, the innate response is exactly _____ ______
the same
What contributes to healthy skin and, therefore, a better defense to bacteria?
Dry skin, the keratin seals bacteria out, acidity of skin, seabum and perspiration contributes to the barrier
What do tears and saliva contain that contribute to defense for you?
How does defensin contribute to defend you from pathogens?
It pokes holes in the cell membrane of bacterial walls
Where is transferrin found?
in blood
How does transferrin contribute to defense?
it binds to iron so that the bacteria can't get the iron. They die of iron deficiency.
Where is lactoferrin found and what does it bind to?
mother's milk and Iron
What are natural killer cells good at carrying out?
penetrating microbes that get through skin and mucous membrane
how are natural killer cells significantly different from B and T cells?
they are not preprogrammed for a specific pathogen.
Where are natural killer cells found in the body?
blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow.
What do natural killer cells use to kill pathogens?
What are he 4 symptoms that always come of inflammation?
1. redness
3. swelling
3. heat
4. pain
name four chemicals that trigger inflammation
1. histamine
2. kinin
3. leukotrienes
3. prostaglandins
What makes interferon?
macrophages, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts
Define Intron A
human Interferon made by E. coli
Define Complement
group of 26 proteins on blood cells membranes
Give 3 functions of Complements
1.Enhances inflammation
Define Opsonization
process that enhances phagocytosis
Define Cytolysis
breakdown of a cell; pokes holes in cell membrane
Define C reactive protein
specific compliment molecule that’s produced by the liver when you have an active inflammation reaction produced in the body.
Define cytokines
chemicals produced by certain cells that deliver chemical messages to another kind of cell
Give 3 examples of Cytokines
1. interferons
2. interleukin
3. colony stimulating factor
What is the "3rd line of defense"?
The specific defense mechanisms
What are 3 important factors of Specific defense mechanisms?
3. Once you have it, it has memory
What are the 2 types of immune responses for the specific defense mechanisms?
1. humoral immunity
2. cellular immunity
Which type of cells are used for humoral immunity?
B cells
What else is Humoral immunity called?
antibody-mediated immune response
Which cells are in Cellular immunity?
killer T cells
What 5 substances does cellular immunity protect against?
1. intracellular viruses
2. fungi
3. protozoa
4. cancer cells
5. transplant cells.
What does humoral immunity protect against?
1. extracellular bacteria
2. viruses
3. bacterial toxins
Define Antigen
any substance that when injected into an organism elicits an immune response.
Define Immunogenicity
ability of an antigen to stimulate an immune response
Define Reactivity
the ability of an antigen to react with a preformed antibody or sensitized T cell.
Define Complete Antigen
antigen that has immunogenicity and reactivity
Define Epitope
part of antigen that the immune system sees, recognizes and responds to.
Define Hapten
molecule that is too small for immunogenicity but will react with a preformed antibody or sensitized T cell.
Define Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen
glycoproteins that are found on the cell membrane of every cell in you except RBCs
Define Human Leukocyte Antigen
subgroup of MHC antigens located specifically on Leukocytes
What is responsible for organ rejection?
What does the T in T cell stand for?
Thymus gland, where it was derived from.
What does the B in B cell stand for?
Bone Marrow
Define Immunocompetence
the ability of an immune system cell to recognize and respond to a specific antigen.
Which cells is antigen processing carried out by?
by macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated B cells.
Describe antigen processing
1. Macrophages are located in places that microbes enter to carry out phagocytosis. When it eats it up, it destroys all of the pathogen except for the epitope. The epitope gets inserted into the macrophage’s own membrane. It carries this epitope to the B cells and inserts it to the B cell with the same receptor site.
Define Cross Reaction
a specific antibody is able to react with more than one antigen. Occurs when antigens are incredibly similar.
Define Antigenic Challenge
the very first encounter between an antigen and your immune system.
Which cells are involved in antigenic challenge?
B cells that clone into memory B cells and plasma cells
In which organs does antigenic processing take place?
Lymph nodes and spleen
Why are plasma cells important in antigenic processing?
produces identical antibody to trigger reaction.
Which are faster at responding to a second infection, B cells or Plasma cells?
Neither. Memory B cells. HAHA!
What cell is responsible for long-term protection?
Memory B cell
what are 2 other names for antibodies?
gamma globulins and Immunoglobulins.
Describe, briefly, the composition of an antibody.
It has at least 2 heavy polypeptide chains and 2 light polypeptide chains
Define Variable part of the antibody, including why it is important to the antibody.
the tips of the chains that provides the 3-d fit for antigen to fit.
Define Constant region and why it is important.
the portion of the polypeptide chain that does not change from class to class but determines the antibody class
Name the 5 classes of antibodies
1. IgG
2. IgA
3. IgE
4. IgD
5. IgM
What does IgG protect you against?
bacteria, bacterial toxins, and extracellular viruses.
Which antibody is on the cell membrane of B cells?
Which antibody funcions as the receptor site of the B cells?
Which antibody occurs in small amounts?
Which antibody is on the cell membrane of the MAST cell?
What is a chemical that strongly attracts phagocytic cells?
What chemical does a MAST cell contain?
Which antibody protects against parasitic infections?
Which antibody is "the antibody of allergies"?
Define Plasma Cells
Cells that make and secrete antibody for antigen
Which cell can eliminate antibodies?
B cells
Define memory B cells
Responds immediately to subsequent exposures
Which cells destroy the antigen when cloned?
Killer T cells
Which cells provide long-term protection?
Memory B cells
Define Helper T cell (T4 Cells)
Function to help intensify immune responses
Define Suppressor T cell
T cell that functions by reducing an immune system response when you don't need it any longer
Define Delayed Hypersensitivity T cell
T cell that has immunocompetence BUT they themselves don't get rid of antigen. They call macrophage to get rid of antigen.
Define Immunologic Memory
Long-term protection against a specific antigen
What type of response does a memory B cell respond to?
Secondary response
Define Secondary Response
Any subsequent exposure from the primary response
Which antibody is known for only producing a primary response?
Define Active Immunity
Your body produces immune protection
which antibodies fix complement?
Which antibody activates B cells?
Does the antibody destroy antigen?
no. it just targets it for destruction
Which cells fight off intracellular viruses?
T cells
What are the 2 major populations of T cells?
1. Helper T cells
2. Killer T cells
What is a CD8 or T8 cell?
Killer T cell
What is a CD4 or T4 cell?
Helper T cell
Which cell is responsible for destroying foreign antigens
Killer T cell
Which cell is responsible for helping intensify immune system responses
Helper T cell
Define Antigen Processing
macrophage locates appropriate T cell for the destruction of the pathogen and forms a clone.
Which cells are involved in antigen processing and respond quickly to infection?
Memory T cells
What do helper T cells secrete?
Cytokines to tell B or T cells to divide
immunologic memory is due to which cells?
B and T cells
Define Vaccine
A suspension of antigen that when injected into a human stimulates an immune response
Define Killed whole vaccine
grow bacteria in lab and add chemical to vaccine that will kill them then put in a vaccine.
Define Attenuated vaccine
microbe is alive but it has been altered to not make you sick.
Define Toxoid vaccine
take toxin from bacteria and suspend it into vaccine
What's the advantage of an attenuated viral vaccine over a killed virus vaccine?
it provides close to lifelong protection
Describe herd immunity
everyone gets vaccinated but the few who it doesn’t work on will probably be ok because they aren’t surrounded by infected
What are the 2 ways that cancer cells can change from regular cells?
ii.MHC changes
What happens if the MHC changes on a cancer cell?
the cancer cell is now a foreign cell and Cytotoxic/killer T cells destroy it.
What is PSA?
antigen found on prostate cancer cells
Based on MHC markers which categories are the organ transplant divided into?
Describe Autograft
donor is recipient. Transplanting from one part of body to another. Best kind
Describe Isograft
donor is identical twin
Describe Xenograft
between different species
Define Allograft
donor is genetically different from recipient in same species. Most common.
What are the 4 criteria for Allograft organ donating?
1.Have to match blood type
2.Have to match HLA’s
3.Check recipient for antibodies to donor’s MHC antigens.
4.Have to check for comparable sizes.
Define immunosuppresive drugs
suppress immune responses. Shut down both B cells and T cells.
Define Graft vs. Host disease
donated tissue/organ mounts an immune attack against recipient. Occurs mostly in bone marrow transplant.
Define immunodeficiency
Individual’s immune system either cannot produce an immune response or cannot maintain an immune response. Repeated infections.
Define primary immunodeficiency and give an example.
born with it; SCID
Define Secondary immunodeficiency and give an example
not born with it;HIV/AIDS
Define autoimmune disease
Individual loses immunologic tolerance. Loses the ability to discriminate between self and non-self. Antibodies destroy self antigens.
Give 6 examples of autoimmune diseases
1. rheumatic fever
2. rheumatoid arthritis
3. grave's disease
4. lupus
5. diabetes mellitus I
6. multiple sclerosis
What is another name given to a hypersensitivity reaction?
Allergy reaction
name the 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions in order of type
1. immediate hypersensitivity
2. cytotoxic hypersensitivity
3. Immune Complex hypersensitivity
4. Delayed Hypersensitivity (or cell-mediated)
Give 2 examples of immediate hypersensitivity
Asthma and Hives
Give an example of cytotoxic hypersensitivity
clumping b/c of mismatched blood
Give an example of Immune Complex hypersensitivity
rheumatoid arthritis
What is actually happening in immune complex hypersensitivity?
1.Eosinophils eat up antigen-antibody complexes.
2.Phagocytic cells can’t keep up with immune complexes and they accumulate, which triggers inflammation reaction that destroys neighboring tissues.
Give 3 examples of Delayed Hypersensitivity (or cell-mediated)
1. poison ivy
2. allergy to soap/perfume
3. allergy to nickel
Which cells cause Delayed Hypersensitivity (or cell-mediated)?
T cells