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89 Cards in this Set

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Large, lower body cavity lying within the abdominal walls, extending from the lower surface of the diaphragm (roof) to the upper surface of the pelvic diaphragm (floor)
Abdomino-pelvic cavity
serous membrane lining the abdomino-pelvic cavity and covering most of its internal organs
Describe where mesothelium is found in the body, its embryonic origin, and cell type
Pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and covers male and female internal repro organs.

Derived from the embryonic mesoderm cell layer, that lines the coelom (body cavity) in the embryo.

Simple squamous except cuboidal in areas of injury, the milky spots of the omentum, and the peritoneal side of the diaphragm. Luminal side covered with microvilli.
Which organs are retroperitoneal?
Liver, kidneys, part of duodenum, pancreas
greater sack in the abdomen also known as?
Peritoneal cavity
Define intraperitoneal
completely surrounded by peritoneum including mesentary. (double peritoneal layer surrounding blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves that attaches to the abdominal wall)
Define mesentary
double peritoneal layer surrounding blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves that attaches to the abdominal wall
Define retroperitoneal
organs that are only partly covered by peritoneum (e.g. pancreas) or are embedded in fat behind the peritoneum (kidneys):
What are the two layers of peritoneum?
Parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum
GI tract is from what germ layer and is divided in what three original areas?

Foregut, Midgut, and Hindgut
What main branch of the descending aorta is primarily associated with the foregut, midgut, and hindgut?
Celiac a., Superior Mesenteric a., and Inferior mesenteric a. respectively
Name four areas from which arteries come to supply blood to the esophagus.
Branches from Subclavian a., thoracic aorta, and abdominal aorta via the Celiac a., and inferior phrenic as.
Name the path of blood as if goes from the subclavian a. to the esophagus.
Subclavian a-->thyrocervical trunk-->inferior thyroid a.-->esophageal branches
Name the branches directly off of the thoracic aorta that are involved in supplying blood to the esophagus.
posterior intercostal, bronchial, and esophageal branches
Name the two paths of blood as if goes from the abdominal aorta to the esophagus.
abdominal aorta-->celiac trunk.-->left gastric a.-->esophageal branches
abdominal aorta-->inferior phrenic-->esophageal branches
What is the lesser omentum?
double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the start of the duodenum.
What is the greater omentum?
a large fold of peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach. It extends from the greater curvature of the stomach, passing in front of the small intestines and reflects on itself to ascend to the transverse colon before reaching to the posterior abdominal wall.
What are plicae circulares?
internal circular folds in the lumen of the bowel. They slow the passage of the food along the intestines, and afford an increased surface for absorption. They are covered with small fingerlike projections called villi, each which, in turn, is covered with microvilli. The microvilli absorb fats and nutrients from the chyme.
Name the anatomical parts of the stomach from top to bottom
Cardiac part of stomach, body of stomach (inferior to fundus and between lesser and greater curvature), Pyloric region including pyloric antrum and pyloric canal, pyloric sphincter (sphincter receives symp innervation from celiac ganglion)
What are the folds in the internal surface of the relaxed stomach?
What is the function of gastric rugae?
provide the stomach with increased surface area for food. When food enters the stomach, these rugae fold and become stretched in. The purpose is to allow it to expand. This therefore allows expansion in volume of the stomach without increased pressure.
Where is the myoelectric pacemaker located?
High on the greater curvature of the stomach.
What is the function of the myoelectric pacemaker and what autonomic branch innervates it
Peristalsis (concerted contractions of smooth muscle lining the lumen which pushes food/chyme forward and prevents back flow).

Where is the spleen developed?
The dorsal mesogastrium
What attaches the spleen to the stomach?
The gastrosplenic ligament
What are the functions of the spleen?
-Removes old red blood cells
-Holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock
-Recycles iron.
-Synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp
-Removes antibody-coated bacteria along with antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation.
-Contains half of the body's monocytes within the red pulp.
Which main artery supplies blood to the stomach?
The celiac artery
Describe 3 paths of blood flow from the celiac artery to the stomach.
1) Celiac a.--> Left gastric
2) Celiac a.--> splenic a.--> posterior gastric, left gastro-omental, short gastric
3) Celiac a.--> common hepatic a.--> right gastric, gastroduodenal-->right gastro-omental
Describe anastamoses around the stomach.
Left gastro-omental (from splenic a.) and right gastro-omental (from common hepatic a.-->gastroduodenal)
Left gastric (from celiac a.) and right gastric (from common hepatic a.)
What is the largest gastric artery?
Left gastric a.
What is the relationship between the Duodenum and the pancreas?
The Duodenum surrounds the pancreatic head.
What are four parts of the Duodenum?
Superior, Descending, Horizontal, and Ascending parts
What is significant about the Superior Part of the Duodenum?
It contains an ampulla which bears the mesentery called the Hepatoduodenal Ligament
The Hepatoduodenal Ligament is part of which larger structure?
The lesser omentum
The Hepatoduodenal ligament carries which vessels? (3)
The common bile duct, the hepatic portal vein, and the hepatic artery proper
Which vessels make up the Portal Triad?
hepatic artery proper
hepatic portal vein
common bile duct
The hepatoduodenal ligament connects which two areas?
The porta hepatis of the liver and the superior part of the duodenum
What is significant about the descending part of the Duodenum?
It receives the outflow from bile and pancreatic ducts fvia the hepatopancreatic ampulla through the greater duodenal papilla.
The lesser duodenal papilla receives outflow from the accessory pancreatic duct.
Which organ makes bile?
The liver
What is bile?
aids the process of digestion of lipids in the small intestine
How does bile work?
Bile salt anions have a hydrophilic side and a hydrophobic side, and therefore tend to aggregate around droplets of fat (triglycerides and phospholipids) to form micelles, with the hydrophobic sides towards the fat and hydrophilic towards the outside
Which organ stores bile?
The gallbladder.
What controls the secretion of bile?
The Hepatopancreatic sphincter (of Oddi)
Where is the horizontal part of the Duodenum in relation to the superior mesenteric a.?
Horizontal part is posterior to the Superior Mesenteric a.
What is significant about the Ascending part of the Duodenum?
The ligament of Treitz (a suspensory ligament).

Plicae Circulares
Describe the occurrence of plicae circularis in the GI tract.
Starts in the Ascending part of the Duodenum, found abundantly in the Jejunum, and less in the Ileum until not at all.
Describe the blood supply to the Duodenum.
Supplied by the celiac actery and the superior mesenteric artery.
-Celiac a.-->common hepatic a.--> gastroduodenal a.--> anterior and posterior branches of the superior pancreaticoduodenal a. which anastomoses with ant. and post. branches of infer. pancreaticoduodenal a. from superior mesenteric artery.
What is the largest organ of the body besides the skin?
The liver
What are the functions of the liver?
Processes lipids, carbs, and AAs absorbed from GI tract.
Detoxifies blood
Produces serum albumen and bile
Breaks down hemoglobin from expired RBCs.
What attaches the liver to the diaphragm?
The coronary ligament
What structure separrates the lobes of the liver?
The falciform ligament
What is the significance of the round ligament?
Used to be part of the umbilical vein, bringing oxygenated blood to the developing fetus.
Through which neurovascular structure does nutrient-rich blood enter the liver?
The hepatic portal vein
Through which structure does bile leave the liver?
The bile ducts. (L and R bile ducts converge into the common bile duct)
Which vascular structure supplies oxygenated blood to the liver?
The hepatic artery proper.
Describe the path of blood from the descending aorta to the heart (through the liver).
Descending aorta--> celiac a.-->Common hepatic a.--> Hepatic artery proper-->left and right hepatic as. --> sinusoids of liver--> right and left hepatic veins --> inferior vena cava --> Right atrium of heart.
Where is the gall bladder found?
In the cystic fossa between R&L lobes of liver
Describe the path of bile from the liver, to the gall bladder, to the duodenum.
Right and Left bile ducts--> common bile duct --> cystic duct--> gallbladder --> cystic duct--> common bile duct through hepatoduodenal ligament (pancreatic duct converges) -->hepatopancreatic ampulla--> descending part of duodenum via greater duodenal papilla.
Describe the path of blood from the descending aorta to the gallbladder.
Descending aorta-->celiac a. --> Common hepatic a. --> Hepatic artery proper --> right hepatic artery --> cystic a.-->gallbladder
What are the relationships of the uncinate process on the head of the pancreas?
It lies inferior to the superior mesenteric artery and anterior to the aorta, superior to horizontal part of Duodenum.
Neck of pancreas overlies superior mesenteric artery and vein and portal vein at which vertebral level?
Which side of the body's midline is most of the pancreas?
What supplies blood to the head, body, and tail of the pancreas?
Head--anterior and posterior branches of the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries (from celiac axis and sup. mesenteric a.)

Body--Splenic artery branches (great, inferior, and dorsal pancreatic as.)

Tail--Splenic, gastro-omental and dorsal pancreatic arteries
What major artery supplies blood to the jejunum and ileum?
Superior mesenteric artery
The vasculature that links adjoining jejunal and ileal branches are called what?
What connects arcades to the small intestine?
vasa rectae
Jejunum is approx. what fraction of small intestine?
Describe arcade and vasa rectae of jejunum.
few large arcades and long vasa rectae
Ileum is approx what fraction of small intestine?
Describe arcade and vasa rectae of ileum.
many small arcades, short vasa recta
What are the parts of the colon in order?
cecum w/ appendix, ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon
With obstruction, where will the large intestine usually tear?
The cecum, b/c it has the largest diameter, therefore, greater pressure
Which portions of the large intestine have mesenteries?
transverse and sigmoid colon
What does the greater omentum fuse to?
Greater curvature of the stomach, transverse mesocolon on transverse colon, and the posterior abdominal wall
What is the name of the artery that anastomoses between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries?
The Marginal artery
What is the general pattern of blood supply to the colon? (Colic Arteries)
The superior mesenteric a. supplies the ascending and transverse colon via the middle colic, right colic, and ileocolic arteries

The inferior mesenteric a. supplies the descending and sigmoid colon via the left colic a., sigmoid arteries, and superior rectal a.
How many flexures and transverse rectal folds in the rectum?
3 (supreior, middle, and inferior rectal valves)
Describe epithelium in rectum and anus.
Rectum: simple columnar
Anus: stratified squamous
What "line" separates the rectum and anus?
The dentate line
What structures does the anal canal include?
The dentate line, anal glands, internal and external sphincter muscles, and hemorrhoidal veins
Describe blood supply to rectum.
Upper Rectum: Superior rectal a. (from inferior mesenteric)

Middle and Lower Rectum: Middle and inferior rectal as. (from internal iliac a.)
What is unique about the construction of the Hepatic Portal Vein, compared to other veins?
It has NO valves.
Which veins combine to make up the hepatic portal vein?
Superior Mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein, and splenic vein
The hepatic portal vein is contained within which mesenteric structure?
The hepatoduodenal ligament (part of the lesser omentum).
Right and Left Hepatic Veins drain where?
Inferior vena cava
What is the pattern of lymph drainage around the GI tract?
lymph nodes from GI viscera--> nodes around base of supplying artery--> higher nodes (inferior mesenteric nodes-->sup. mesenteric nodes--> celiac nodes)-->thoracic duct-->junction of internal jugular and subclavian veins
Why do some patients with colon cancer sometimes suddenly get the more-fatal lung cancer?
Metastisized cancer cells travel through the lymphatic pathway to the subclavian vein, to the superior vena cava, into the heart, and then into the lungs.
Which fibers innervate the GI tract?
Para/pre from vagus to foregut and midgut

Para/pre from pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4) to hindgut (descending and sigmoid colon, rectum)

Sym/Post from preaortic abdominal ganglia

Visceral Afferent (VA)--
1) Vagal Afferents (stretch, reflex, pain, satiety, chemo receptors)
2)Segmental Visceral Afferents which travel alongside sympathetic efferents in thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nerves (referred pain).
Where are para/post ganglion cells found?
Myenteric plexuses of smooth muscle layers of organ