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54 Cards in this Set

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TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

it's primary goal is to stimulate the thyroid to release hormones

ACTH (adrenocoticotropic hormone)

stimulates the production of the steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)

follicle maturation is stimulated by the ovaries and testes



LH (luteinizing hormone

ovulation and production of testosterone

PRL (prolactin)

creates lactation from the breast



GH (growth hormone)

Mitosis from body cells

Anterior Pituitary

TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL, AND GH are all released from this endocrine gland

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

helps kidney cells from dehydration by retaining h2o

Oxytocin

Released from the post pituitary, it targets the uterus and stimulates contractions

TH(thyroid hormone)

all body cells are targeted for metabolism function by thyroid gland

calcitonin

lowers blood calcium

PTH (parathyroid hormone)

raises blood calcium

Aldosterone

the kidney is targeted to increase blood sodium levels

Cortisol

Increases blood glucose in between meals

androgen

precursor to sex hormones

glucagon

alpha cells of pancreas are released and target the liver to increase blood glucose

insulin

beta cells of pancreas, lower blood glucose levels

melatonin

from pineal gland to brain, involves day/night cycle

estrogen

maturation of reproductive organs, released from ovaries



testosterone

maturation of male reproductive organs

Erythopoetin (EPO)

the kidney targets red bone marrow to help create red blood cell formation

fenestrated capillaries

neurons of hypothalamus release regulatory factors through ___________


pituitary

Two lobed organ that secretes nine major hormones

anterior, posterior

whatre the two lobes of the pituitary

posterior pituitary

receives, stores, and releases hormones from hypothalmus

posterior pituitary

Uses PIP calcium second-messenger mechanism

anterior pituitary

synthesizes and secretes a number of hormones

anterior pituitary

all bind to membrane receptors

anterior pituitary

uses cyclic AMP as a second messenger

nervous system

preforms short term crisis management

endocrine system

regulates long term ongoing metabolic activities of tissues and organs

autocrines

chemicals that exert effects on the target cells that secrete them

paracrine commnication

chemical messengers are released target cells within one tissue

endocrine communication

endocrine cells releasing hormones to alter metabolic activity of target cells

amino acids

protein hormones

steroids

gonadal and adrenocortical hormones

steroids

freely circulating or bound to transport proteins

alter plasma membrane permeability, stimulate protein synthesis, activate/deactivate enzyme systems, induce secretory activity, stimulate mitosis

Hormones produce one or more of the following cellular changes in target cells

amino acids and steroids

two major types of hormone structures

second messengers and direct gene activation

hormones alter target cell activity by one of two mechanisms

Second messengers

receptors for hormone are located in the cell membrane of the target cell

amino acids

this specific hormone requires second messengers

direct gene activiation

hormones cross the cell membrane and bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus

steroid hormone

precise response from direct gene activation depends on the type of target cell from this hormone

releasing hormone, inhibiting hormone (RH) (IH)

in the anterior lobe, these release regulatory factors through fenestrated capillaries

hypophyseal portal system

all blood entering through this special vascular connection will reach the intended target cells before returning to the general circulation

post pituitary

has a neural connection with the hypothalamus/ hypothalamic-hypopyseal tract

homeostatic feedback systems

blood levels of hormones are controlled by this mostly negative feedback

Humoral, neural, hormonal stimuli

hormones are synthesized and released in response to

humoral

secretion of hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients

neural

nerve fivers stimulate hormone release

hormonal

relsease of hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs

nervous system

modifies the stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms as well as can override the normal endocrine system

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