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52 Cards in this Set

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Cold War

between US and Russia over global supremacy ; there was no direct military conflict

Tehran Conference (1943)

meeting of Churchill, FDR, and Stalin ; was first meeting of the Big Three ; friendly due to progress and Stalin made a promise to declare war on Japan and help US win war in Pacific if they attacked Hitler and defeated him

Yalta Conference (1945)

war favors USSR and Stalin gets specific with demands ; Stalin wanted all control of Poland and wherever his army was located when the war was over ; Roosevelt agreed because he was sick and not at his best

Potsdam Conference (1945)

Harry Truman was now president ; his first meeting with the Big Three ; Truman told Stalin that Us had a bomb and was going to use it on Japan, so he might want to rethink his expansion decision ; Stalin says he already knows about it because communists had infiltrated the US government

Harry Truman

VP who became president after Roosevelt died ; president who dropped bomb to end WWII

Joseph Stalin

communist leader of USSR ; put to death over 10 million Soviets he suspected of disloyalty ; wanted protection, but at first offered no specifics ; very paranoid

Containment

United States foreign policy doctrine adopted by the Harry S. Truman administration in 1947, operating on the principle that communist governments will eventually fall apart as long as they are prevented from expanding their influence.

George Kennan

expert on all things USSR ; helped Truman with foreign policy ; called his plan "containment" ; said stop trying to get along with Stalin and US needed to stop the spread of communism

Truman Doctrine

$400 million ; sent to Greece and Turkey to help with their upheaval

Marshall Plan

$13 billion ; aid to western Europe to stop the spread of communism

National Security Act

created CIA (spies and intelligence to get information)

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

alliance of western Europe and US militarily

Mao Zedong

came to power in China in 1949 ; he was a communist so now all of China was communist

NSC-68 (National Security Council April 1950)

advisors told Truman to change foreign policy and go on war against communism ; huge increase in defense budget ($13 billion in 1950 to $50 billion in 1953) ; development of thermonuclear bomb (Hydrogen or H Bomb) ; "victory over, not containment, of communists"

Rio Pact (1947)

US would support any country in Latin America militarily

Korean War

North Korea invades South Korea using Soviet weapons ; Truman goes to United Nations rather than congress for military response

Red Scare

US citizens afraid of communist infiltration

Joseph McCarthy

senator from Wisconsin who said he had a list of over 200 communists in the government in February 1950

Baby Boom

population increase after men came home from WWII

Dwight Eisenhower

general in charge of D-Day ; won presidential election in 1952 ; Nixon was his Vice President ; republican

HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee)

investigates Hollywood because no movies were being made where communists were the enemy ; sent out subpoenas asking directors and actors to come testify that they were not communists

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

charged with espionage in 1951 and executed in 1953 ; stole secrets and sold them to Soviets because he worked in the nuclear program

John Kennedy

from Massachusetts with little political experience ; war hero in WWII ; beat Richard Nixon in election of 1960 ; was only 42 and actively seeked out the college crowd ; played up the youthful generation ; had first televised presidential debate

New Frontier

theme of Kennedy's presidency ; wanted to end racial discrimination, aid the elderly in the form of medical care and increased social security benefits, improve education at all levels, space program, put a man on the moon by the end of the decade, environmental protection in the form of water and air standards, and service to others with peace corps ; faced opposition from both republicans and democrats

Lyndon Johnson

becomes president after assassination of JFK

Great Society

Lyndon Johnson's fulfillment of JFK's New Frontier plan ; medicare for the elderly and medicaid for the poor ; Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Title 1) ; social security tied to the rate of inflation ; clean air and water acts; civil rights/voting rights act

NAACP

well educated group of attorneys who wanted legal equality for African Americans

Executive Order #9981

desegregated the armed forces ; done by President Harry S. Truman

Brown vs. BOE (1954)

Oliver Brown's daughter had to go to a run down black only school ; Supreme Court reverses Plessy unanimously ; Earl Warren was chief justice ; implementation was to be with "all deliberate speed" which means school boards could decide when to do it

Little Rock Central High School (1957)

sent letters to black students asking if they would like to attend, had interviews and picked the best about 50 students ; white in community began threatening them so only 9 wanted to attend before school started ; Governor Faubus orders state police to halt desegregation ; President Eisenhower federalizes national guard and calls in 101st Airborne to ensure the safety of the black students

Sit-In-Movement (1960)

in Greensboro, NC white waitresses refused to serve black college students ; sat all day in Woolworth's lunch counter ; arrested, so more students came in the next day ; cycle ; they eventually changed their policy

Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)

Montgomery, AL ; segregated bus transport system ; Rosa Parks did not move out of her seat and was arrested ; she was a well respected member of the community ; MLK was preacher at Dexter Baptist and decided to start a bus boycott until they changed their policy ; lasted about a year and then they changed their policy when they were close to bankruptcy

Martin Luther King Jr.

went on marches and gave speeches for civil rights ; non-violent protestor

Birmingham (1963)

In Alabama ; had reputation of being the most segregated city in US ; MLK asks to do non-violent march and the city government denied his request ; he decided to do it anyway and was arrested ; the march still occurred and police turned on the marchers using brutal police tactics

Civil Rights Bill (1964)

congressional response ; outlaws racial discrimination in public accommodations and unequal voter registration requirements ; was fulfillment of the civil rights commission during Truman's presidency ; Lyndon B. Johnson was president during signing

Poor People's Campaign

proposed by MLK ; said number one problem in US was poverty ; wanted to raise awarness and money ; led march in Memphis, TN in 1968 and delivered his "Mountaintop Speech"

James Earl Ray

white man who assassinated MLK on April 4, 1968 on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel

Ho Chi Minh

declared Vietnam independent in Septmeber 1945 from France ; reached out to US for support ; US did not support because he was a communist

Vietminh

Ho Chi Minh's followers ; North Vietnamese Communists

Domino Theory

theory that if Dien Bien Phu fell to communists all of Vietnam would too

Dien Bien Phu (1954)

city was surrounded and French couldn't get into it so they reached out to US for help ; president at time was Eisenhower ; fell to communists

Geneva Conference (1954)

divided Vietnam into two parts at 17th parallel ; North was Ho Chi Minh's ; South was to be free and democratic for two years then they would have a national election to decide if they wanted to stay separate, but they never took place

Vietcong

South Vietnamese Nationalists ; took to the streets to protest ; wanted human rights and change because the government was becoming increasingly corrupt

Tonkin Gulf Resolutions

"blank check" for Lyndon B. Johnson ; could use as much needed to protect American interests in SE Asia

William Westmoreland

4 star general ; led troops in Vietnam ; asked for gradual escalation of troops ; assured LBJ and US that we were winning the war and victory was just around the corner

Agent Orange

defoliant used to destroy jungles of South Vietnam ; later linked to cancer

Napalm

a flammable gel that explodes on contact

Tet Offensive

Vietnamese New Year ; was supposed to be week of cease fire, but Ho Chi Minh planned a surprise attack ; NVA and VC attack key points in SV including Saigon and American embassy ; NV lost over 100,000 casualties and did not gain control of anything they attacked

My Lai (March 16, 1968)

300-500 dead ; innocent civilians murdered by US soldiers ; was result of American frustration and trouble with recognizing the enemy ; caused loss of support for war from Americans

Vietnamization

Richard Nixon's secret plan to end the war ; meant reducing US troops while increasing SV forces ; 1970 clean out enemy sanctuaries along the Ho Chi Minh trail which ran through Cambodia ; this widened the war beyond Vietnam

Kent State (May 4, 1970)

in Ohio ; planned a war protest for noon ; chancellor of university found out and contacted the governor for assistance so things did not get out of hand ; National Guard fired into students and killed 4 ; 2 were not even involved in the protest

Paris Peace Accords

ended Vietnam war on January 27, 1973 ; treaty signed that SV would remain free and independent and all American troops would be sent home within 60 days ; NV would release all POWs ; did not last long because on April 30, 1975 SV fell to communism