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20 Cards in this Set

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Commerical agriculture

Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm

Subsistence agriculture

Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family


Dairy farming

A type of commercial agriculture for long-term production of milk, which is processed for eventual sale of a dairy product

Desertification

Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting

Intensive agriculture

A form of agriculture characterized by a low fallow ratio and higher use of inputs such as capital and labor per unit land area

Extensive agriculture

A form of agriculture that uses small inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed

Genetically modified organisms

Organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination

Neolithic revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

Second agricultural revolution

Caused by technology provided by the Industrial Revolution to increase production and distribution of products

Green revolution

Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers

Intensive subsistence agriculture

A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to product the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land

Livestock ranching

A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area

Mediterranean agriculture

An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, and olives are produced

Pastoral nomadism

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals

Shifting cultivation

A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period

Slash-and-burn agriculture

Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris

Sustainability

Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides

Swidden

A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning

Transhumance

The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures

Von Thunen Model

Model of land use that showed how market processes could determine how land in different locations would be used