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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Physical aggression bullying percent

21% of youth--boys do more

Relational aggression bullying percent

51% of youth-girls do more

Cyber bullying percent

14% of youth, 4% bullies, 11% victims, 7% both

Boys usually bully, girls usually victim

Friends and bullying

More friends=more likely to bully and less likely to be bullied

Outcomes of bullying

Lower GPA, 1.5 decrease in math

Lower attendance

Depression and anxiety, esp. cyberbullying

Somatic problems, feeling ill

Gender role classification and well-being

Androgyny best for females--less depression, more self esteem, fewer psychological problems

Masculinity best for males

Gender and social learning theory

Gender development occurs through observation, rewards, punishments

Gender intensification

Differences between sexes becomes more pronounced because intensified socialization pressures to conform

Individual factors for bullying

History of violent victimization

Exposure to violence/conflict in family

History of early aggressive behavior

Emotional distress

School difficulties

Involvement with substances

Antisocial beliefs and attitudes

Family risk factors for bullying

Authoritarian parenting style

Harsh, lax, or inconsistent discipline

Low parental involvement

Low emotional attachment to parents

Low parental education and income

Parent substance abuse or criminality

School/peer risk factors for bullying

Social rejection by peers

Lack of social skills

Association with delinquent peers

Lack of involvement in conventional activities

Poor academic performance

Low commitment to school

School transitions

Community risk factors for bullying

Diminished economic opportunities

Socially disorganized

High levels of transiency

Low levels of community participation

Social cognitive perspective

Become less sex-typed in early ad. due to increasing flexibility in thinking

Temporary fluctuations

declining traditionalism in childhood, flattens or increases in ad., decreases again after ad.

Segregation of sexes

Early childhood: children segregate themselves

Continues through middle ad.

Violation of segregation met with disaproval

Teenage pregnancy

1/3 sexually active girls get pregnant

30% abort

14% miscarry

5% put up for adoption

50% keep child

Consequences of teen motherhood

Twice as likely to drop out of school

Less likely to go to college or be employed

Less likely to get married by 35

More likely to get divorced

More likely to receive public assistance

Kids with teen parents after 18 years

25% still on welfare

25% made it to middle class

Majority completed high school

33% complete some college

Teen fathers

More likely to get divorced

Lower education

Lower paying job

More prone to drugs and alcohol


Anxiety and depression

Child with teen parents

More likely premature

Low birth weight related to physical and intellectual problems

More behavioral problems

School misbehavior, delinquency, sexual activity

Become teen parents

States role in sex ed

22 states require sex ed, indiana does not

Indiana requires that schools which teach sex ed teach abstinence only

33 states, including Indiana, require HIV/AIDS ed

Only 19 states require sex ed be accurate

Results of abstinence only

Same pregnancy rates as those who receive no sex ed

Did not reduce rate of vaginal intercourse compared to no sex ed

Same STI rates as no sex ed

Results of comprehensive sex ed

Lower pregnancy rates than those who receive sex ed

Lower rates of vaginal intercourse

Adolescent alcohol use

12th grade--68%

10th grade--52%

8th grade--28%

In last thirty days adolescent alcohol use

12th grade--39%

10th grade--52%

8th grade--28%

Adolescent cigarette use

38% ever

16% in last 30 days

Adolescent marijuana use

46% ever

23% in last 30 days

Most likely race to use drugs and alcohol

Native American then White

Adolescent illicit drug use

25% ever

8% last 30 days

Reasons for substance use

Peer acceptance

Rite of passage



Out of defiance

Substance abuse and addiction

Small percent of youth become addicted

Maladjusted as kids

Use substances as coping mechanisms

Can suffer psychological and physical problems as a result of withdrawal

Adolescent substance use associated with...

Physical and sexual assault

Risky sexual behavior

Poorer academic performance

Alter structure and connections of developing brain

Early use associated with future dependence

Substance use predictors

Anger, impulsitivity, depression, poor school performance, permissive or uninvolved parents, Distant hostile or conflicted relationships, parental and sibling use, inneffective parenting, parent and sibling modelling, parent and sibling direct initiation

Substance use prevention

Parental monitoring

Establish clear rules

Help say no

Status offences

Behaviors only unlawful for adolescents

Index crimes

Violations for all

Non-index crimes

Less serious crimes, violations for all

Adolescent limited delinquency

Occurs in adolescents through early adulthood

Occurs with friends

Employed adolescents

80% will work during high school

50% employed youth work 15+ hours a week during school week

17% work 25+ hours

Adolescents most likely to work

Middle class, suburban youth (no gender differences)

Premature affluence

Feel loss of income when have to pay for own necessities

Why is work related to potentially detrimental outcomes?

Precocious maturity (involvement in adult behavior)

Time commitment

Lack adult supervision

Potential benefits of work

Self reliant and autonomous

Budget time and punctuality

How to get and keep a job

Advantaged in work force later in life

College after high school


Relative independence

Most emerging adults are not married, do not have children, and schooling is not compulsory


The act of willing, choosing, or resolving

Emerging adult demographics

67% of youth enter college following high school

32% of 25-29 year olds have completed college

33-40% move away from home and work

1/3 move away to college

Emerging adulthood residence

36% of adults under 31 live with parents

College enrollment and completion negatively related to living at home

10% of males and 30% of females remain in parents home until marriage

40% move in and out of parents home at least once

57% of college grads planned move in w parents

2/3 cohabit with romantic partner

Emerging adults define adulthood by...

Accepting responsibility for actions

Making independent decisions

Financial independence


Adolescent vs. emerging adulthood--Love

Ad: Fun, tentative, transient dating

Emerging adults: onset of intimate and serious romantic relationships

Adolescent vs. emerging adulthood--work

Ad: part time, not related to future career

Emerging adults: explore career options, career preparation, and prep for adult roles

Adolescent vs. emerging adulthood--worldviews

Ad: Cognitive development leads to more relativistic thought, questioning beliefs and teachings

Emerging adults: greater searching of religion and politics and worldviews from childhood

Roleless role

Wider scopes of possible activities, but less likely to be constrained by role requirements

Unstructured socializing

Young people send time together with no specific event as the center of their activity

Emerging adulthood parent-child relationships

Less conflict

Greater communication

Feeling closer to parents

Young adult, 5 events that must be mastered

End of schooling


Living apart from family



Young adult parents--more educated parents expect

Children to leave home later

Start work later

Stay in school longer

Young adult parents, gender difference

Egalitarian parents had higher aspirations for daughters

Traditional parents expect daughters to stay home until marriage