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58 Cards in this Set

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Physical aggression bullying percent

21% of youth--boys do more

Relational aggression bullying percent

51% of youth-girls do more

Cyber bullying percent

14% of youth, 4% bullies, 11% victims, 7% both


Boys usually bully, girls usually victim

Friends and bullying

More friends=more likely to bully and less likely to be bullied

Outcomes of bullying

Lower GPA, 1.5 decrease in math


Lower attendance


Depression and anxiety, esp. cyberbullying


Somatic problems, feeling ill

Gender role classification and well-being

Androgyny best for females--less depression, more self esteem, fewer psychological problems


Masculinity best for males

Gender and social learning theory

Gender development occurs through observation, rewards, punishments

Gender intensification

Differences between sexes becomes more pronounced because intensified socialization pressures to conform

Individual factors for bullying

History of violent victimization


Exposure to violence/conflict in family


History of early aggressive behavior


Emotional distress


School difficulties


Involvement with substances


Antisocial beliefs and attitudes

Family risk factors for bullying

Authoritarian parenting style


Harsh, lax, or inconsistent discipline


Low parental involvement


Low emotional attachment to parents


Low parental education and income


Parent substance abuse or criminality

School/peer risk factors for bullying

Social rejection by peers


Lack of social skills


Association with delinquent peers


Lack of involvement in conventional activities


Poor academic performance


Low commitment to school


School transitions

Community risk factors for bullying

Diminished economic opportunities


Socially disorganized


High levels of transiency


Low levels of community participation

Social cognitive perspective

Become less sex-typed in early ad. due to increasing flexibility in thinking

Temporary fluctuations

declining traditionalism in childhood, flattens or increases in ad., decreases again after ad.

Segregation of sexes

Early childhood: children segregate themselves


Continues through middle ad.


Violation of segregation met with disaproval

Teenage pregnancy

1/3 sexually active girls get pregnant


30% abort


14% miscarry


5% put up for adoption


50% keep child

Consequences of teen motherhood

Twice as likely to drop out of school


Less likely to go to college or be employed


Less likely to get married by 35


More likely to get divorced


More likely to receive public assistance

Kids with teen parents after 18 years

25% still on welfare

25% made it to middle class


Majority completed high school


33% complete some college


Teen fathers

More likely to get divorced


Lower education


Lower paying job


More prone to drugs and alcohol


Arrested


Anxiety and depression

Child with teen parents

More likely premature


Low birth weight related to physical and intellectual problems


More behavioral problems


School misbehavior, delinquency, sexual activity


Become teen parents

States role in sex ed

22 states require sex ed, indiana does not


Indiana requires that schools which teach sex ed teach abstinence only


33 states, including Indiana, require HIV/AIDS ed


Only 19 states require sex ed be accurate

Results of abstinence only

Same pregnancy rates as those who receive no sex ed


Did not reduce rate of vaginal intercourse compared to no sex ed


Same STI rates as no sex ed

Results of comprehensive sex ed

Lower pregnancy rates than those who receive sex ed


Lower rates of vaginal intercourse

Adolescent alcohol use

12th grade--68%


10th grade--52%


8th grade--28%

In last thirty days adolescent alcohol use

12th grade--39%


10th grade--52%


8th grade--28%

Adolescent cigarette use

38% ever


16% in last 30 days

Adolescent marijuana use

46% ever


23% in last 30 days

Most likely race to use drugs and alcohol

Native American then White

Adolescent illicit drug use

25% ever


8% last 30 days

Reasons for substance use

Peer acceptance


Rite of passage


Boredom


Curiosity


Out of defiance

Substance abuse and addiction

Small percent of youth become addicted


Maladjusted as kids


Use substances as coping mechanisms


Can suffer psychological and physical problems as a result of withdrawal

Adolescent substance use associated with...

Physical and sexual assault


Risky sexual behavior


Poorer academic performance


Alter structure and connections of developing brain


Early use associated with future dependence

Substance use predictors

Anger, impulsitivity, depression, poor school performance, permissive or uninvolved parents, Distant hostile or conflicted relationships, parental and sibling use, inneffective parenting, parent and sibling modelling, parent and sibling direct initiation

Substance use prevention

Parental monitoring


Establish clear rules


Help say no

Status offences

Behaviors only unlawful for adolescents

Index crimes

Violations for all

Non-index crimes

Less serious crimes, violations for all

Adolescent limited delinquency

Occurs in adolescents through early adulthood


Occurs with friends

Employed adolescents

80% will work during high school


50% employed youth work 15+ hours a week during school week


17% work 25+ hours

Adolescents most likely to work

Middle class, suburban youth (no gender differences)

Premature affluence

Feel loss of income when have to pay for own necessities

Why is work related to potentially detrimental outcomes?

Precocious maturity (involvement in adult behavior)


Time commitment


Lack adult supervision

Potential benefits of work

Self reliant and autonomous


Budget time and punctuality


How to get and keep a job


Advantaged in work force later in life

College after high school

67%

Relative independence

Most emerging adults are not married, do not have children, and schooling is not compulsory

Volitional

The act of willing, choosing, or resolving

Emerging adult demographics

67% of youth enter college following high school


32% of 25-29 year olds have completed college


33-40% move away from home and work


1/3 move away to college



Emerging adulthood residence

36% of adults under 31 live with parents


College enrollment and completion negatively related to living at home


10% of males and 30% of females remain in parents home until marriage


40% move in and out of parents home at least once


57% of college grads planned move in w parents


2/3 cohabit with romantic partner

Emerging adults define adulthood by...

Accepting responsibility for actions


Making independent decisions


Financial independence


Transitions

Adolescent vs. emerging adulthood--Love

Ad: Fun, tentative, transient dating


Emerging adults: onset of intimate and serious romantic relationships

Adolescent vs. emerging adulthood--work

Ad: part time, not related to future career


Emerging adults: explore career options, career preparation, and prep for adult roles

Adolescent vs. emerging adulthood--worldviews

Ad: Cognitive development leads to more relativistic thought, questioning beliefs and teachings


Emerging adults: greater searching of religion and politics and worldviews from childhood

Roleless role

Wider scopes of possible activities, but less likely to be constrained by role requirements

Unstructured socializing

Young people send time together with no specific event as the center of their activity

Emerging adulthood parent-child relationships

Less conflict


Greater communication


Feeling closer to parents

Young adult, 5 events that must be mastered

End of schooling


Working


Living apart from family


Marriage


Parenthood

Young adult parents--more educated parents expect

Children to leave home later


Start work later


Stay in school longer

Young adult parents, gender difference

Egalitarian parents had higher aspirations for daughters


Traditional parents expect daughters to stay home until marriage